Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-227883
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
(To Prospectus dated October 31, 2018)
The information in this prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, dated March 22, 2019.
ELECTRAMECCANICA VEHICLES CORP.
We are offering ________ shares of our common stock in this offering.
Our common shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SOLO”. On March 21, 2019, the last reported sales price of our common shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $4.89 per share.
We completed a 2-for-1 reverse stock split on May 15, 2018. All share and per share information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, excluding the audited financial statements and the notes thereto, has been adjusted to reflect this reverse stock split.
We have engaged Roth Capital Partners, LLC as our exclusive placement agent in connection with this offering. The placement agent has no obligation to buy any of the shares from us or to arrange for the purchase or sale of any specific number or dollar amount of securities. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on Page S-[ ] of this prospectus supplement for more information regarding these arrangements.
In reviewing this prospectus supplement, you should carefully consider the matters described under the caption “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-[ ] as well as the matters described under the caption “Risk Factors” beginning on page [ ] of the accompanying prospectus.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and are therefore eligible for certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to reporting companies under the Exchange Act.
|Public offering price||US$||US$|
|Placement agent fees (1)||US$||US$|
|Proceeds to us, before expenses(2)||US$||US$|
|(1)||We have also agreed to reimburse the placement agent for certain of its expenses. See "Plan of Distribution" on page S- of this prospectus supplement for more information about these arrangements.|
|(2)||The total estimated expenses related to this offering are set forth in the section entitled “Expenses Relating to This Offering.”|
We expect to deliver the shares on or about March , 2019.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if either this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Roth Capital Partners
The date of this prospectus supplement is March , 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS||S-v|
|PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY||S-vii|
|USE OF PROCEEDS||S-14|
|LIMITATIONS ON RIGHTS OF NON-CANADIANS||S-16|
|MATERIAL TAX CONSIDERATIONS||S-17|
|PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION||S-25|
|EXPENSES RELATING TO THIS OFFERING||S-28|
|INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL||S-28|
|INCORPORATION POF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE||S-28|
|WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION||S-29|
|ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS||1|
|ABOUT THE COMPANY||3|
|CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS||34|
|PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION AND EXCHANGE RATE DATA||36|
|DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL||38|
|DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS||39|
|DESCRIPTION OF UNITS||41|
|INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS||42|
|PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION||42|
|WHERE YOU CAN GET MORE INFORMATION||44|
|INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE||45|
|ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES||46|
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto or any free writing prospectus prepared by or on our behalf. Neither we, nor the Placement Agent, have authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. Neither we, nor the Placement Agent, take responsibility for, nor can we provide assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may provide. The Placement Agent is not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus or such other date stated in this prospectus supplement, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or prospects may have changed since those dates.
Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus supplement, neither we nor the Placement Agent have taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States.
Unless the context otherwise requires, in this prospectus supplement, the term(s) “we”, “us”, “our”, “Company”, “our company”, “Electrameccanica” and “our business” refer to Electrameccanica Vehicles Corp.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus contain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements”. Any statements that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. These statements appear in a number of different places and, in some cases, can be identified by words such as “anticipates”, “estimates”, “projects”, “expects”, “contemplates”, “intends”, “believes”, “plans”, “may”, “will”, or their negatives or other comparable words, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Such forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements and/or information related to: strategy, future operations, the size and value of the order book and the number of orders, the number and timing of building pre- mass production vehicles, the projection of timing and delivery of SOLOs, Super SOLOs or Tofinos in the future, projected costs, expected production capacity, expectations regarding demand and acceptance of our products, estimated costs of machinery to equip a new production facility, and trends in the market in which we operate, plans and objectives of management.
Forward-looking statements are based on the reasonable assumptions, estimates, analysis and opinions made in light of our experience and our perception of trends, current conditions and expected developments, as well as other factors that we believe to be relevant and reasonable in the circumstances at the date that such statements are made, but which may prove to be incorrect. Management believes that the assumption and expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable. Assumptions have been made regarding, among other things: our ability to build pre-mass production vehicles and to begin production deliveries within certain timelines; our expected production capacity; prices for machinery to equip a new production facility, labor costs and material costs, remaining consistent with our current expectations; production of SOLOs, Super SOLOs and Tofinos meeting expectations and being consistent with estimates; equipment operating as anticipated; there being no material variations in the current regulatory environment; and our ability to obtain financing as and when required and on reasonable terms. Readers are cautioned that the foregoing list is not exhaustive of all factors and assumptions which may have been used.
The forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to be materially different from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors include but are not limited to:
|●||general economic and business conditions, including changes in interest rates;|
|●||prices of other electric vehicles, costs associated with manufacturing electric vehicles and other economic conditions;|
|●||actions by government authorities, including changes in government regulation;|
|●||uncertainties associated with legal proceedings;|
|●||changes in the electric vehicle market;|
|●||future decisions by management in response to changing conditions;|
|●||our ability to execute prospective business plans;|
|●||misjudgments in the course of preparing forward-looking statements;|
|●||our ability to raise sufficient funds to carry out our proposed business plan;|
|●||consumers’ willingness to adopt three-wheeled single passenger electric vehicles;|
|●||declines in the range of our electric vehicles on a single charge over time may negatively influence potential customers’ decisions to purchase such vehicles;|
|●||developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the internal combustion engine;|
|●||inability to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology;|
|●||inability to design, develop, market and sell new electric vehicles and services that address additional market opportunities;|
|●||dependency on certain key personnel and any inability to retain and attract qualified personnel;|
|●||inexperience in mass-producing electric vehicles;|
|●||inability to reduce and adequately control operating costs;|
|●||failure of our vehicles to perform as expected;|
|●||inexperience in servicing electric vehicles;|
|●||inability to succeed in establishing, maintaining and strengthening the Electrameccanica brand;|
|●||disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials;|
|●||the unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives;|
|●||failure to manage future growth effectively; and|
|●||labor and employment risks.|
Although management has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. Forward-looking statements might not prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. We wish to advise you that these cautionary remarks expressly qualify, in their entirety, all forward-looking statements attributable to our company or persons acting on our company’s behalf. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting such statements, except as, and to the extent required by, applicable securities laws. You should carefully review the cautionary statements and risk factors contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and other documents that we may file from time to time with the securities regulators.
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
The following summary highlights, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated therein by reference. You should read carefully the entire documents, including our historical and pro forma financial statements and related notes, to understand our business, the common shares and the other considerations that are important to your decision to invest in the common shares. You should pay special attention to the “Risk Factors” sections beginning on page S-1[ ] of this prospectus supplement and on page 21[ ] of the accompanying prospectus.
All references to “$” or “dollars”, are expressed in Canadian dollars unless otherwise indicated.
We are a development-stage electric vehicle, or EV, manufacturing company located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Our initial product line targets urban residents seeking to commute in an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.
Our first flagship EV is the SOLO, a single person car, of which we have built 45 pre-mass production vehicles in-house as of March 14, 2019 and approximately 50 pre-mass production vehicles with our manufacturing partner. We have used some of these pre-mass production vehicles as prototypes and for certification purposes, have delivered some to customers and have used others as test drive models in our showroom. We believe our schedule to mass produce EVs over the near term, combined with our 50-year history of automotive design, manufacturing, and deliveries of motor vehicles to customers significantly differentiates us from other early and development stage EV companies. To support our near-term production, we have entered into a manufacturing agreement with a wholly-owned subsidiary of Zongshen Industrial Group Co. Ltd. (“Zongshen”), an affiliate of Zongshen Power Machinery Co., Ltd. a large-scale scientific and technical enterprise which designs, develops, manufactures and sells a diverse range of motorcycles and motorcycle engines in China. Zongshen has previously purchased common shares and warrants to purchase common shares from us and beneficially owns approximately 8.1% of our common shares.
We have two other EV candidates in an advanced stage of development, the Super SOLO, a sports car model of the SOLO, and the Tofino, an all-electric, two-seater roadster, and have identified other vehicles that we would like to add to our candidate list such as the Cargo, a fleet vehicle with ample storage space, and the Twinn, featuring two seats, suitable for urban families, young commuters and empty nesters.
We have devoted substantial resources to create an affordable EV which brings significant performance and value to our customers. To this end, we envision the SOLO carrying a manufacturer’s suggested retail price of CDN$19,888 (approximately US$15,888), prior to any surcharge to cover tariffs, and being powered by a high-performance electric rear drive motor which enables the SOLO to achieve:
|·||a top speed of 85 mph and an attainable cruise speed of 68 mph resulting from its lightweight aerospace composite chassis;|
|·||acceleration from 0 mph to 60 mph in approximately eight seconds; and|
|·||a range of up to 100 miles generated from a lithium ion battery system that requires only three hours of charging time on a 220-volt charging station (six hours from a 110-volt outlet) that utilizes approximately 8.64 kW/h.|
In addition, the SOLO contains a number of standard features found in higher price point vehicles including:
|●||LCD digital instrument cluster;|
|●||AM/FM stereo with Bluetooth/ CD/USB;|
|●||remote keyless entry system;|
|●||rear view backup camera;|
|●||285 liters of cargo space; and|
|●||heater and defogger.|
We anticipate that air conditioning will be available for the SOLO at an additional cost.
We were incorporated on February 16, 2015 under the laws of British Columbia, Canada, and have a December 31, fiscal year end. As of March 14, 2019, we had 33,260,643 common shares outstanding.
Our principal executive offices are located at 102 East 1st Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V5T 1A4. Our telephone number is (604) 428-7656. Our website address is www.electrameccanica.com. Information on our website does not constitute part of this prospectus supplement. Our registered and records office is located at Suite 1500, 1055 West Georgia Street, P.O. Box 11117, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6E 4N7.
Investment in clean technology has been trending upwards for several years as nations, governments, and societies overall become more aware of the damaging effects that pollution and greenhouse gas emissions have on the environment. EVs are a growing segment of this clean technology movement. An EV is any vehicle that does not solely operate on gas or diesel. Within this alternative vehicle group, there are sub-categories of alternative vehicles that utilize different innovative technologies, including battery electric vehicles (“BEV”) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (“PHEV”). Our products are BEVs.
Competitive Advantages & Operational Strengths
The EV market is evolving and companies within it must be able to adapt without jeopardizing the timing, quality or quantity of their products. We believe that our extensive managerial and automotive experience, production capability and unique product offering give us the ability to successfully operate in the EV market in a way that our competitors cannot. In particular, we believe that our competitive advantages include:
|·||extensive in-house development capabilities: Our recent acquisition of Intermeccanica International Inc. (“IMI”) enables us to leverage IMI’s extensive 59 years of experience in vehicle design, manufacture, sales and customer support. IMI’s former owner, Henry Reisner, is our President and Chief Operating Officer and one of our directors and, together with his family, is the second largest shareholder in our company. We have integrated IMI’s staff with the research and development team that we had prior to the acquisition to develop and enhance current and future model offerings;|
|·||in-house production capabilities: We have the ability to manufacture our own products on a non-commercial scale. As of March 14, 2019, we have produced 45 SOLOs at our facilities in Vancouver, British Columbia. We will continue to produce two to four SOLOs per month as needed and to develop prototypes of our other EVs;|
|·||commercial production of the SOLO anticipated to commence in the second quarter of 2019: We have an agreement with Zongshen whereby they have agreed to produce 5,000 SOLOs in the first twelve months after the start of production, 20,000 cars in the next twelve months and 50,000 cars in the twelve months after that. To date, Zongshen has produced approximately 50 pre-mass production vehicles;|
|·||unique product offering: Although the proposed retail price of the SOLO, $19,888 (US$15,888) prior to any surcharge for tariffs, is far below the retail price of EVs offered by those who we consider to be our principal competitors, we believe that the SOLO compares favorably against them; and|
|·||management expertise: We have selected our management with an eye towards providing us with the business and technical expertise needed to be successful. Our Chief Executive Officer, Jerry Kroll, and our President and Chief Operating Officer, Henry Reisner, used their love of automobiles to devise the concept for the SOLO. Mr. Kroll has an extensive background working in small businesses and start-ups. We have supplemented their expertise by adding officers and directors with corporate, accounting, legal and other strengths.|
Our near-term goal is to commence and expand sales of the SOLO while continuing to develop our other EVs. We intend to achieve this goal by:
|•||beginning commercial production of the SOLO: We anticipate that Zongshen will begin producing the SOLO in the second quarter of 2019 and that we will complete our first sale of a mass production vehicle shortly thereafter. Zongshen is contracted to make 75,000 SOLOs in the first three years of production;|
|•||increasing orders for our EVs: As of March 14, 2019, we have received deposits for 1,028 EVs from individuals. As part of our “Match My Deposit” program, we offer customers who have placed deposits for other electric vehicles a credit of up to $1,000 towards the purchase of a SOLO, which is initially credited towards the buyers’ deposit. 211 of the 962 vehicle deposits that we have received through March 14, 2019 result from the “Match My Deposit” program. Additionally, we have entered into non-binding letters of interest for approximately 63,299 vehicles from corporate accounts as of March 14, 2019. There is no guaranty that a significant number of these orders, if any, will become binding and result in sales. We have achieved this order book through an online “direct sales to customers and corporate sales” platform as well as a store and show room near our headquarters in the downtown core of Vancouver, British Columbia, and in Los Angeles, California. We plan on expanding this model and will be opening similar stores in other key urban areas.;|
|•||having sales and services supported by local corporate dealerships: We will monitor all cars in real time via telematics which provides early warning of potential maintenance issues; and|
|•||expanding our product offering: In parallel with the production and sale of the SOLO, we aim to continue the development of our other proposed products, including the Tofino, a two seater sports car in the expected price range of $50,000 to $60,000 with an estimated prototype in 2020, and the Cargo, a fleet vehicle with ample storage space.|
Shortly after our incorporation in 2015, we entered into an arrangement with Intermeccanica to leverage Intermeccanica’s over 50 years of quality car manufacturing expertise. Intermeccanica was founded in Turin, Italy in 1959 as a speed parts provider and soon began producing in-house designed, complete vehicles like the Apollo GT, Italia, Murena, Indira and the Porsche 356 replica. On October 18, 2017, we entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (the “SPA”) by which we acquired all the shares of Intermeccanica for $2,500,000.
On October 2, 2017, we announced a manufacturing agreement with Zongshen to produce 75,000 SOLO all-electric vehicles over the next three years. We are targeting for the production of 5,000 SOLOs in 2019; 20,000 in 2020; and 50,000 in 2021. Under the agreement we agreed to reimburse Zongshen for the cost of the prototype tooling and molds estimated to be $1.8 million and the mass production tooling and molds estimated to be $7.8 million, which shall be payable 50% of which shall be payable when Zongshen commences manufacturing the tooling and molds. We have paid 90% of the prototype tooling and molds and 36% of the mass production tooling and molds, and regarding the mass production tooling and molds we expect to pay the balance of the initial 50% in the first half of 2019, 40% when Zongshen completes manufacturing the tooling and molds (which we expect will be in the first half of 2019), and 10% upon delivery to us of the first production vehicle for delivery to customers (which we also expect will be in the first half of 2019).
Implications of Being a Foreign Private Issuer
We are considered a foreign private issuer. In our capacity as a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from certain rules under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that impose certain disclosure obligations and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and "short-swing" profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.
We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time as more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (1) the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents, (2) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States or (3) our business is administered principally in the United States.
We have taken advantage of certain reduced reporting and other requirements in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold equity securities.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:
|•||the ability to include only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations disclosure; and|
|•||an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.|
We may take advantage of these provisions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than US$1.07 billion in annual revenue, have more than US$700 million in market value of our common shares held by non-affiliates or issue more than US$1 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period.
|Common shares offered by us||shares|
|Common shares outstanding after this offering:||shares (1)|
|Use of Proceeds:||We anticipate using approximately 45% of the net proceeds from the offering to further design and development our two-seater sports car, the Tofino, approximately 45% of the net proceeds from the offering for the production of the SOLO and the remainder for working capital and for general corporate purposes|
|See “Risk Factors” on page S-1 and the other information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should consider before deciding to invest in our securities.|
|Nasdaq Capital Market symbol:||SOLO|
|(1)||The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering as shown above is based on 33,311,663 shares outstanding as of March 21, 2019 and excludes:|
|(i)||24,290,644 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance in connection with future awards under our equity compensation plans,|
|(ii)||5,709,356 shares of our common stock that have been reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding options with a weighted average exercise price of $2.96; and|
|(iii)||21,473,418 shares of our common stock that have been reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of $3.68.|
We have no other securities convertible or exercisable into our common shares.
An investment in our securities carries a significant degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks, as well as the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated therein by reference, including our historical and pro forma financial statements and related notes, before you decide to purchase the common shares. Any one of these risks and uncertainties has the potential to cause material adverse effects on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results which could cause actual results to differ materially from any forward-looking statements expressed by us and a significant decrease in the value of our common shares. Refer to “Forward-Looking Statements”.
We may not be successful in preventing the material adverse effects that any of the following risks and uncertainties may cause. These potential risks and uncertainties may not be a complete list of the risks and uncertainties facing us. There may be additional risks and uncertainties that we are presently unaware of, or presently consider immaterial, that may become material in the future and have a material adverse effect on us. You could lose all or a significant portion of your investment due to any of these risks and uncertainties.
Risks Related to our Business and Industry
We have a limited operating history and have generated minimal revenues.
Our limited operating history makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult. We were formed in February 2015, and we have not yet begun mass production or the commercial delivery of our first vehicle. To date, we have no revenues from the sale of electric vehicles as any amounts received from the sale of our pre-mass production electric vehicles were netted off against research and development costs as cost recovery and minimal revenue from the sale of custom cars. We intend to derive revenues from the sales of our SOLO vehicle, our Super SOLO vehicle, our Tofino vehicle and other intended electric vehicles. The Tofino is in development and we are just starting to deliver to our SOLO customers. We expect to build the prototype of the Tofino in 2020. Our vehicles require significant investment prior to commercial introduction and may never be successfully developed or commercially successful.
We expect that we will experience an increase in losses prior to the launch of the SOLO, the Super SOLO or the Tofino.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, we generated a net and comprehensive loss of $11,366,372, bringing our accumulated deficit to $21,335,552, and for the nine-month period ended September 30, 2018, we generated a net and comprehensive loss of $7,910,509, bringing our accumulated deficit to $29,246,061. We anticipate generating a significant loss for the current fiscal year. The independent auditor’s report on our audited financial statements includes an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern.
We have minimal revenues, are currently in debt and expect significant increases in costs and expenses to forestall profits for the foreseeable future, even if we generate revenues in the near term. Even if we are able to successfully develop the SOLO, the Super SOLO or the Tofino, they might not become commercially successful. If we are to ever achieve profitability, we must have a successful commercial introduction and acceptance of our vehicles, which may not occur.
We expect the rate at which we will incur losses to increase significantly in future periods from current levels as we:
|•||design, develop and manufacture our vehicles and their components;|
|•||develop and equip our manufacturing facility;|
|•||build up inventories of parts and components for the SOLO, the Super SOLO and the Tofino;|
|•||open Electra Meccanica stores;|
|•||expand our design, development, maintenance and repair capabilities;|
|•||develop and increase our sales and marketing activities; and|
|•||develop and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations.|
Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive any revenues with respect thereto, our losses in future periods will be significantly greater than the losses we would incur if we developed the business more slowly. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in profits or even revenues, which would further increase our losses.
We currently have negative operating cash flows, and if we are unable to generate positive operating cash flows in the future our viability as an operating business will be adversely affected.
We have made significant up-front investments in research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses to rapidly develop and expand our business. We are currently incurring expenditures related to our operations that have generated a negative operating cash flow. Operating cash flow may decline in certain circumstances, many of which are beyond our control. We might not generate sufficient revenues in the near future. Because we continue to incur such significant future expenditures for research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses, we may continue to experience negative cash flow until we reach a sufficient level of sales with positive gross margins to cover operating expenses. An inability to generate positive cash flow until we reach a sufficient level of sales with positive gross margins to cover operating expenses or raise additional capital on reasonable terms will adversely affect our viability as an operating business.
To carry out our proposed business plan to develop, manufacture, sell and service electric vehicles, we will require a significant amount of capital.
To carry out our proposed business plan for the next 12 months, we estimate that we will need approximately $30 million. As of September 30. 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $12.1 million. If cash on hand, revenue from the sale of our cars, if any, and cash received upon the exercise of outstanding warrants, if any are exercised, are not sufficient to cover our cash requirements, we will need to raise additional funds through the sale of our equity securities, in either private placements or registered offerings, and shareholder loans. If we are unsuccessful in raising enough funds through such capital-raising efforts, we may review other financing possibilities such as bank loans. Financing might not be available to us or, if available, only on terms that are not acceptable to us.
Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business plan. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our current corporate structure. We might not be able to obtain any funding, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.
Terms of future financings may adversely impact your investment.
We may have to engage in common equity, debt or preferred stock financing in the future. Your rights and the value of your investment in our securities could be reduced. Interest on debt securities could increase costs and negatively impacts operating results. Preferred stock could be issued in series from time to time with such designation, rights, preferences, and limitations as needed to raise capital. The terms of preferred stock could be more advantageous to those investors than to the holders of common shares. In addition, if we need to raise equity capital from the sale of common shares, institutional or other investors may negotiate terms at least as, and possibly more, favorable than the terms of your investment. Common shares which we sell could be sold into any market which develops, which could adversely affect the market price.
Our future growth depends upon consumers’ willingness to adopt three-wheeled single passenger electric vehicles.
Our growth highly depends upon the adoption by consumers of, and we are subject to an elevated risk of any reduced demand for, alternative fuel vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. If the market for three-wheeled single passenger electric vehicles does not develop as we expect, or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be negatively impacted. The market for alternative fuel vehicles is relatively new, rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, frequent new vehicle announcements and changing consumer demands and behaviors. Factors that may influence the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, and specifically electric vehicles, include:
|•||perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety (in particular with respect to lithium-ion battery packs), design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of electric vehicles;|
|•||perceptions about vehicle safety in general and, in particular, safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technology, including vehicle electronics and braking systems;|
|•||the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge;|
|•||the decline of an electric vehicle’s range resulting from deterioration over time in the battery’s ability to hold a charge;|
|•||concerns about electric grid capacity and reliability, which could derail our efforts to promote electric vehicles as a practical solution to vehicles which require gasoline;|
|•||the availability of alternative fuel vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;|
|•||improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;|
|•||the availability of service for electric vehicles;|
|•||the environmental consciousness of consumers;|
|•||volatility in the cost of oil and gasoline;|
|•||government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternate forms of energy;|
|•||access to charging stations, standardization of electric vehicle charging systems and consumers’ perceptions about convenience and cost to charge an electric vehicle;|
|•||the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles; and|
|•||perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel.|
The influence of any of the factors described above may cause current or potential customers not to purchase our electric vehicles, which would materially adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.
The range of our electric vehicles on a single charge declines over time which may negatively influence potential customers’ decisions whether to purchase our vehicles.
The range of our electric vehicles on a single charge declines principally as a function of usage, time and charging patterns. For example, a customer’s use of their vehicle as well as the frequency with which they charge the battery of their vehicle can result in additional deterioration of the battery’s ability to hold a charge. We currently expect that our battery pack will retain approximately 85% of its ability to hold its initial charge after approximately 3,000 charge cycles and 8 years, which will result in a decrease to the vehicle’s initial range. Such battery deterioration and the related decrease in range may negatively influence potential customer decisions whether to purchase our vehicles, which may harm our ability to market and sell our vehicles.
Developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the internal combustion engine may materially adversely affect the demand for our electric vehicles.
Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. For example, fuel which is abundant and relatively inexpensive in North America, such as compressed natural gas, may emerge as consumers’ preferred alternative to petroleum-based propulsion. Any failure by us to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay our development and introduction of new and enhanced electric vehicles, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of our vehicles, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors.
If we are unable to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology, we may suffer a decline in our competitive position.
We may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology and, as a result, may suffer a decline in our competitive position. Any failure to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology would result in a decline in our competitive position which would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in electric vehicle technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our vehicles and introduce new models to continue to provide vehicles with the latest technology, in particular battery cell technology. However, our vehicles may not compete effectively with alternative vehicles if we are not able to source and integrate the latest technology into our vehicles. For example, we do not manufacture battery cells which makes us depend upon other suppliers of battery cell technology for our battery packs.
If we are unable to design, develop, market and sell new electric vehicles and services that address additional market opportunities, our business, prospects and operating results will suffer.
We may not be able to successfully develop new electric vehicles and services, address new market segments or develop a significantly broader customer base. To date, we have focused our business on the sale of the SOLO, a three-wheeled single passenger electric vehicle and have targeted mainly urban residents of modest means. We will need to address additional markets and expand our customer demographic to further grow our business. Our failure to address additional market opportunities would harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Demand in the vehicle industry is highly volatile.
Volatility of demand in the vehicle industry may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The markets in which we will be competing have been subject to considerable volatility in demand in recent periods. Demand for automobile sales depends to a large extent on general, economic, political and social conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As a new start-up manufacturer, we will have fewer financial resources than more established vehicle manufacturers to withstand changes in the market and disruptions in demand.
We depend on a third-party for our near-term manufacturing needs.
In October 2017, we entered into a manufacturing agreement with a wholly-owned subsidiary (“Zongshen”) of Zongshen Industrial Group Co. Ltd., an affiliate of Zongshen Power Machinery Co., Ltd., located in Chongqing, China. Under the agreement, Zongshen has begun the process of establishing tooling and has contracted to produce 75,000 SOLO vehicles in the three full years from the commencement of production. The delivery of SOLO vehicles to our future customers and the revenue derived therefrom depends on Zongshen’s ability to fulfill its obligations under that manufacturing agreement. Zongshen’s ability to fulfill its obligations is outside of our control and depends on a variety of factors including Zongshen’s operations, Zongshen’s financial condition and geopolitical and economic risks that could affect China. If Zongshen is unable to fulfill its obligations or is only able to partially fulfill its obligations, we will not be able to sell our SOLO vehicle in the volumes anticipated on the timetable that we anticipate, if at all.
We do not currently have arrangements in place that will allow us to fully execute our business plan.
To sell our vehicles as envisioned, we will need to enter into agreements and arrangements that are not currently in place. These include entering into agreements with dealerships, arranging for the transportation of the mass-produced SOLOs to be delivered pursuant to our manufacturing agreement with Zongshen, obtaining battery and other essential supplies in the quantities that we require, entering into manufacturing agreements for the Super SOLO and the Tofino and acquiring additional manufacturing capability. If we are unable to enter into such agreements or are only able to do so on terms that are unfavorable to us, we may not be able to fully carry out our business plans.
We depend on certain key personnel, and our success will depend on our continued ability to retain and attract such qualified personnel.
Our success depends on the efforts, abilities and continued service of Jerry Kroll, our Chief Executive Officer, Henry Reisner, our President and Chief Operating Officer, Bal Bhullar, our Chief Financial Officer, Isaac Moss, our Chief Administrative Officer, and Ed Theobald, our General Manager. A number of these key employees and consultants have significant experience in the automobile manufacturing industry. A loss of service from any one of these individuals may adversely affect our operations, and we may have difficulty or may not be able to locate and hire a suitable replacement. We have not obtained any “key person” insurance on certain key personnel.
Since we have little experience in mass-producing electric vehicles, any delays or difficulties in transitioning from producing custom vehicles to mass-producing vehicles may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects and operating results.
Our management team has experience in producing custom designed vehicles and is now switching focus to mass producing electric vehicles in a rapidly evolving and competitive market. If we are unable to implement our business plans in the timeframe estimated by management and successfully transition into a mass-producing electric vehicle manufacturing business, then our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed.
We are subject to numerous environmental and health and safety laws and any breach of such laws may have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
We are subject to numerous environmental and health and safety laws, including statutes, regulations, bylaws and other legal requirements. These laws relate to the generation, use, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of regulated substances, including hazardous substances (such as batteries), dangerous goods and waste, emissions or discharges into soil, water and air, including noise and odors (which could result in remediation obligations), and occupational health and safety matters, including indoor air quality. These legal requirements vary by location and can arise under federal, provincial, state or municipal laws. Any breach of such laws and/or requirements would have a material adverse effect on our company and its operating results.
Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
All vehicles sold must comply with federal, state and provincial motor vehicle safety standards. In both Canada and the United States vehicles that meet or exceed all federally mandated safety standards are certified under the federal regulations. In this regard, Canadian and U.S. motor vehicle safety standards are substantially the same. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving federal certification. Failure by us to have the SOLO, the Super SOLO, the Tofino or any future model electric vehicle satisfy motor vehicle standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
If we are unable to reduce and adequately control the costs associated with operating our business, including our costs of manufacturing, sales and materials, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects will suffer.
If we are unable to reduce and/or maintain a sufficiently low level of costs for designing, manufacturing, marketing, selling and distributing and servicing our electric vehicles relative to their selling prices, our operating results, gross margins, business and prospects could be materially and adversely impacted.
If our vehicles fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our electric vehicles could be harmed.
Our vehicles may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. For example, our vehicles use a substantial amount of software code to operate. Software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced. While we have performed extensive internal testing, we currently have a very limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the performance of our SOLO in the hands of our customers and currently have no frame of reference by which to evaluate the performance of our vehicles after several years of customer driving. A similar evaluation of the Super SOLO and the Tofino is further behind.
We have very limited experience servicing our vehicles. If we are unable to address the service requirements of our future customers our business will be materially and adversely affected.
If we are unable to successfully address the service requirements of our future customers our business and prospects will be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we anticipate the level and quality of the service we will provide our customers will have a direct impact on the success of our future vehicles. If we are unable to satisfactorily service our customers, our ability to generate customer loyalty, grow our business and sell additional vehicles could be impaired.
We have very limited experience servicing our vehicles. We plan for mass production to begin for SOLO vehicles for deliveries during 2019 and a prototype for the Tofino in 2020. As of March 14, 2019, the total number of SOLOs that we have produced pre-mass production is 45 and the number of SOLOs that Zongshen has produced pre-mass production is approximately 50. Throughout its history, Intermeccanica International Inc. (“Intermeccanica”) has produced approximately 2,500 cars, which includes, providing after sales support and servicing. We do not have any experience servicing the SOLO or the Tofino as a limited number of SOLOS have been produced and the Tofino has not yet been produced. Servicing electric vehicles is different than servicing vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques.
We may not succeed in establishing, maintaining and strengthening the Electra Meccanica brand, which would materially and adversely affect customer acceptance of our vehicles and components and our business, revenues and prospects.
Our business and prospects heavily depend on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the Electra Meccanica brand. Any failure to develop, maintain and strengthen our brand may materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our planned electric vehicles. If we are not able to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Promoting and positioning our brand will likely depend significantly on our ability to provide high quality electric cars and maintenance and repair services, and we have very limited experience in these areas. In addition, we expect that our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the Electrameccanica brand will also depend heavily on the success of our marketing efforts. To date, we have limited experience with marketing activities as we have relied primarily on the internet, word of mouth and attendance at industry trade shows to promote our brand. To further promote our brand, we may be required to change our marketing practices, which could result in substantially increased advertising expenses, including the need to use traditional media such as television, radio and print. The automobile industry is intensely competitive, and we may not be successful in building, maintaining and strengthening our brand. Many of our current and potential competitors, particularly automobile manufacturers headquartered in Detroit, Japan and the European Union, have greater name recognition, broader customer relationships and substantially greater marketing resources than we do. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.
Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials, in particular lithium-ion cells, could harm our business.
We may experience increases in the cost or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of raw materials. Any such increase or supply interruption could materially negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We use various raw materials in our business including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber, non-ferrous metals such as copper and cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand for these materials and could adversely affect our business and operating results. For instance, we are exposed to multiple risks relating to price fluctuations for lithium-ion cells. These risks include:
|•||the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;|
|•||disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery cell manufacturers; and|
|•||an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells.|
Our business depends on the continued supply of battery cells for our vehicles. We do not currently have any agreements for the supply of batteries and depend upon the open market for their procurement. Any disruption in the supply of battery cells from our supplier could temporarily disrupt the planned production of our vehicles until such time as a different supplier is fully qualified. Moreover, battery cell manufacturers may choose to refuse to supply electric vehicle manufacturers to the extent they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. Furthermore, current fluctuations or shortages in petroleum and other economic conditions may cause us to experience significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins if we cannot recoup the increased costs through increased electric vehicle prices. We might not be able to recoup increasing costs of raw materials by increasing vehicle prices. We have also already announced an estimated price for the base model of our planned SOLO, Super SOLO and Tofino. However, any attempts to increase the announced or expected prices in response to increased raw material costs could be viewed negatively by our potential customers, result in cancellations of SOLO, Super SOLO and Tofino reservations and could materially adversely affect our brand, image, business, prospects and operating results.
The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Any reduction, elimination or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives that are offered to purchasers of EVs or persons installing home charging stations, the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of the electric vehicle, fiscal tightening or other reasons may result in the diminished competitiveness of the alternative fuel vehicle industry generally or our electric vehicles in particular. This could materially and adversely affect the growth of the alternative fuel automobile markets and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
If we fail to manage future growth effectively, we may not be able to market and sell our vehicles successfully.
Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We plan to expand our operations in the near future in connection with the planned production of our vehicles. Our future operating results depend to a large extent on our ability to manage this expansion and growth successfully. Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include:
|•||training new personnel;|
|•||forecasting production and revenue;|
|•||controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;|
|•||establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;|
|•||implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes;|
|•||addressing new markets; and|
|•||establishing international operations.|
We intend to continue to hire a number of additional personnel, including design and manufacturing personnel and service technicians, for our electric vehicles. Competition for individuals with experience designing, manufacturing and servicing electric vehicles is intense, and we may not be able to attract, assimilate, train or retain additional highly qualified personnel in the future. The failure to attract, integrate, train, motivate and retain these additional employees could seriously harm our business and prospects.
Our business may be adversely affected by labor and union activities.
Although none of our employees are currently represented by a labor union, it is common throughout the automobile industry generally for many employees at automobile companies to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. We have a manufacturing agreement with Zongshen to produce 75,000 SOLO vehicles over approximately three years. Zongshen’s workforce is not currently unionized, though they may become so in the future or industrial stoppages could occur in the absence of a union. We also directly and indirectly depend upon other companies with unionized work forces, such as parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results. If a work stoppage occurs within our business, that of Zongshen or that of our key suppliers, it could delay the manufacture and sale of our electric vehicles and have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results or financial condition. Additionally, if we expand our business to include full in-house manufacturing of our vehicles, our employees might join or form a labor union and we may be required to become a union signatory.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The automobile industry experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our vehicles do not perform as expected or malfunction resulting in personal injury or death. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given we have limited field experience of our vehicles. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our vehicles and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future vehicle candidates which would have material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. We plan to maintain product liability insurance for all our vehicles with annual limits of approximately $5 million on a claims-made basis, but any such insurance might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages either in excess of our coverage, or outside of our coverage, may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition. We may not be able to secure additional product liability insurance coverage on commercially acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed, particularly if we do face liability for our products and are forced to make a claim under our policy.
Our patent applications may not result in issued patents, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from interfering with our commercialization of our products.
The registration and enforcement of patents involves complex legal and factual questions and the breadth and effectiveness of patented claims is uncertain. We cannot be certain that we are the first to file patent applications on these inventions, nor can we be certain that our pending patent applications will result in issued patents or that any of our issued patents will afford sufficient protection against someone creating competing products, or as a defensive portfolio against a competitor who claims that we are infringing its patents. In addition, patent applications filed in foreign countries are subject to laws, rules and procedures that differ from those of the United States, and thus we cannot be certain that foreign patent applications, if any, will result in issued patents in those foreign jurisdictions or that such patents can be effectively enforced, even if they relate to patents issued in the U.S.
We may need to defend ourselves against patent or trademark infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and would cause us to incur substantial costs.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our vehicles or components, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive communications from third parties that allege our products are covered by their patents or trademarks or other intellectual property rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise assert their rights. If we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do things that include one or more of the following:
|•||cease making, using, selling or offering to sell processes, goods or services that incorporate or use the third-party intellectual property;|
|•||pay substantial damages;|
|•||seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;|
|•||redesign our vehicles or other goods or services to avoid infringing the third-party intellectual property; or|
|•||establish and maintain alternative branding for our products and services.|
In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.
You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. federal courts may be limited because we are incorporated under the laws of the Province of British Columbia, a substantial portion of our assets are in Canada and all of our executive officers and most of our directors reside outside the United States
We are organized pursuant to the laws of the Province of British Columbia under the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) (the “Business Corporation Act”) and our executive offices are located outside of the United States in Vancouver, British Columbia. All of our officers, our auditor and all but two of our directors reside outside the United States. In addition, a substantial portion of their assets and our assets are located outside of the United States. As a result, you may have difficulty serving legal process within the United States upon us or any of these persons. You may also have difficulty enforcing, both in and outside of the United States, judgments you may obtain in U.S. courts against us or these persons in any action, including actions based upon the civil liability provisions of U.S. Federal or state securities laws. Furthermore, there is substantial doubt as to the enforceability in Canada against us or against any of our directors, officers and the expert named in this Annual Report who are not residents of the United States, in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, of liabilities based solely upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. In addition, shareholders in British Columbia companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in U.S. federal courts.
As a result, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us, our management, our directors or our major shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.
Global economic conditions could materially adversely impact demand for our products and services.
Our operations and performance depend significantly on economic conditions. Uncertainty about global economic conditions could result in customers postponing purchases of our products and services in response to tighter credit, unemployment, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values and other macroeconomic factors, which could have a material negative effect on demand for our products and services and, accordingly, on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We are vulnerable to a growing trade dispute between the United States and China
A growing trade dispute between the United States and China could increase the proposed sales price of our products or decrease our profits, if any. In June 2018, the current U.S. administration has imposed tariffs on $34 billion of Chinese exports, including a 25% duty on cars built in China and shipped to the United States. Following the imposition of these tariffs, China has imposed additional tariffs on U.S. goods manufactured in the United States and exported to China. Subsequently, the U.S. administration indicated that it may impose tariffs on up to US$500 billion of goods manufactured in China and imported into the United States. These tariffs may escalate a nascent trade war between China and the United States. This trade conflict could affect our business because we intend to mass produce the SOLO in China and our intended principal market is the West Coast of North America. If a trade war were to escalate or if tariffs were imposed on any of our products, we could be forced to increase the proposed sales price of such products or reduce the margins, if any, on such products.
Recently, U.S. Customs and Border Protection ruled that the SOLO has a classification under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule to the United States Code that applies to passenger vehicles for less than 10 people with only electric motors. The total applicable duty for this classification was recently raised to 27.5% (2.5% is a “most-favored-nation” tariff for this classification and 25% derives from this classification being on the China 301 List 1). We envision that the base purchase price for our SOLO will be $19,888 (approximately US$15,888), but the final purchase price in the United States will likely be increased as a result of the recent increase in the tariff applicable to the SOLO. As the landscape for tariffs involving imports to the United States from the People’s Republic of China has been changing over the past year and may change again, we have not determined how to adjust the base purchase price in the United States in response to the recent tariff increase.
Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.
The legal system in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) is based on written statutes. Unlike common law systems, it is a system in which legal cases have limited value as precedents. In the late 1970s, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly increased the protections afforded to various production services in the PRC. Zongshen, our manufacturing partner, is subject to various PRC laws and regulations generally applicable to companies in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties.
From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights or Zongshen may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to fulfill its obligations under the manufacturing agreement. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we or Zongshen may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.
Risks Related to Our Common Shares and this Offering
Our executive officers and directors beneficially own approximately 44% of our common shares.
As of March 14, 2019, our executive officers and directors beneficially own, in the aggregate, 44% of our common shares, which includes shares that our executive officers and directors have the right to acquire pursuant to warrants and stock options which have vested. As a result, they are able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors, amendments to our Articles and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of our company or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these shareholders.
The continued sale of our equity securities will dilute the ownership percentage of our existing shareholders and may decrease the market price for our common shares.
Our Notice of Articles authorize the issuance of an unlimited number of common shares and the issuance of preferred shares. The Board of Directors has the authority to issue additional shares of our capital stock to provide additional financing in the future and designate the rights of the preferred shares, which may include voting, dividend, distribution or other rights that are preferential to those held by the common shareholders. The issuance of any such common or preferred shares may result in a reduction of the book value or market price, if one exists at the time, of the outstanding common shares. Given our lack of revenues, we will likely have to issue additional equity securities to obtain working capital we require for the next 12 months. Our efforts to fund our intended business plans will therefore result in dilution to our existing shareholders. If we do issue any such additional common shares, such issuance also will cause a reduction in the proportionate ownership and voting power of all other shareholders. As a result of such dilution, if you acquire common shares, your proportionate ownership interest and voting power could be decreased. Further, any such issuances could result in a change of control or a reduction in the market price for our common shares.
Additionally, we had 4,101,134 vested options and 21,473,418 warrants outstanding as of March 21, 2019. The exercise price of some of these options and warrants is below our current market price, and you could purchase shares in this offering at a price in excess of the exercise price of outstanding warrants or options. If the holders of these options and warrants elect to exercise them, your ownership position will be diluted and the per share value of the shares in this offering could be diluted as well. As a result, the market value of our shares could significantly decrease as well.
Issuances of our preferred stock may adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common shares and reduce the value of our common shares.
Our Notice of Articles authorize the issuance of an unlimited number of shares of preferred stock. Our Board of Directors has the authority to create one or more series of preferred stock and, without shareholder approval, issue shares of preferred stock with rights superior to the rights of the holders of common shares. As a result, shares of preferred stock could be issued quickly and easily, adversely affecting the rights of holder of common shares and could be issued with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control or make removal of management more difficult. Although we currently have no plans to create any series of preferred stock and have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock, any creation and issuance of preferred stock in the future could adversely affect the rights of the holders of common shares and reduce the value of our common shares.
The market price of our common shares may be volatile and may fluctuate in a way that is disproportionate to our operating performance.
Our common shares began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market in August 2018, and before that it had been trading on the OTCQB since September 2017. The historical volume of trading has been low (within the past year, the fewest number of our shares that were traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market was 3,100 shares), and the share price has fluctuated significantly (since trading began on the Nasdaq Capital Market, our closing price has been as low as US$0.95 and as high as US$4.89). The share price for our common shares could decline due to the impact of any of the following factors:
|•||sales or potential sales of substantial amounts of our common shares;|
|•||announcements about us or about our competitors;|
|•||litigation and other developments relating to our patents or other proprietary rights or those of our competitors;|
|•||conditions in the automobile industry;|
|•||governmental regulation and legislation;|
|•||variations in our anticipated or actual operating results;|
|•||change in securities analysts’ estimates of our performance, or our failure to meet analysts’ expectations;|
|•||change in general economic trends; and|
|•||investor perception of our industry or our prospects.|
Many of these factors are beyond our control. The stock markets in general, and the market for automobile companies in particular, have historically experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. These broad market and industry factors could reduce the market price of our common shares regardless of our actual operating performance.
We do not intend to pay dividends and there will thus be fewer ways in which you are able to make a gain on your investment.
We have never paid any cash or stock dividends and we do not intend to pay any dividends for the foreseeable future. To the extent that we require additional funding currently not provided for in our financing plan, our funding sources may prohibit the payment of any dividends. Because we do not intend to declare dividends, any gain on your investment will need to result from an appreciation in the price of our common shares. There will therefore be fewer ways in which you are able to make a gain on your investment.
FINRA sales practice requirements may limit your ability to buy and sell our common shares, which could depress the price of our shares.
FINRA rules require broker-dealers to have reasonable grounds for believing that an investment is suitable for a customer before recommending that investment to the customer. Prior to recommending speculative low-priced securities to their non-institutional customers, broker-dealers must make reasonable efforts to obtain information about the customer’s financial status, tax status and investment objectives, among other things. Under interpretations of these rules, FINRA believes that there is a high probability such speculative low-priced securities will not be suitable for at least some customers. Thus, FINRA requirements may make it more difficult for broker-dealers to recommend that their customers buy our common shares, which may limit your ability to buy and sell our shares, have an adverse effect on the market for our shares and, thereby, depress their market prices.
Our common shares have been thinly traded, and you may be unable to sell at or near ask prices or at all if you need to sell your shares to raise money or otherwise desire to liquidate your shares.
From October 2017 until August 2018, our common shares were quoted on the OTCQB where they were “thinly-traded”, meaning that the number of persons interested in purchasing our common shares at or near bid prices at any given time was relatively small or non-existent. Since we listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market in August 2018, the volume of our shares traded has increased, but that volume could decrease until we are thinly-traded again. That could occur due to a number of factors, including that we are relatively unknown to stock analysts, stock brokers, institutional investors and others in the investment community that generate or influence sales volume, and that even if we came to the attention of such persons, they tend to be risk-averse and might be reluctant to follow an unproven company such as ours or purchase or recommend the purchase of our shares until such time as we became more seasoned. As a consequence, there may be periods of several days or more when trading activity in our shares is minimal or non-existent, as compared to a seasoned issuer which has a large and steady volume of trading activity that will generally support continuous sales without an adverse effect on share price. Broad or active public trading market for our common shares may not develop or be sustained.
Volatility in our common shares or warrant price may subject us to securities litigation.
The market for our common shares may have, when compared to seasoned issuers, significant price volatility, and we expect that our share or warrant prices may continue to be more volatile than that of a seasoned issuer for the indefinite future. In the past, plaintiffs have often initiated securities class action litigation against a company following periods of volatility in the market price of its securities. We may, in the future, be the target of similar litigation. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and liabilities and could divert management’s attention and resources.
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business.
You will incur immediate and substantial dilution as a result of this offering.
After giving effect to the sale by us of shares offered in this offering at the public offering price of $ per share, and after deducting the placement agent fees and estimated offering expenses payable by us, investors in this offering will suffer immediate and substantial dilution of $ per share in the net tangible book value of the common stock you purchase in this offering. See “Dilution” for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering.
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act. As such, we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies. For example:
|•||we are not required to provide as many Exchange Act reports, or as frequently, as a domestic public company;|
|•||for interim reporting, we are permitted to comply solely with our home country requirements, which are less rigorous than the rules that apply to domestic public companies;|
|•||we are not required to provide the same level of disclosure on certain issues, such as executive compensation;|
|•||we are exempt from provisions of Regulation FD aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information;|
|•||we are not required to comply with the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; and|
|•||we are not required to comply with Section 16 of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and establishing insider liability for profits realized from any “short-swing” trading transaction.|
Our shareholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important and are accustomed to receive from U.S. reporting companies.
As an “emerging growth company” under applicable law, we will be subject to lessened disclosure requirements. Such reduced disclosure may make our common shares less attractive to investors.
For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the JOBS Act, we will elect to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies”, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Because of these lessened regulatory requirements, our shareholders would be left without information or rights available to shareholders of more mature companies. If some investors find our common shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for such securities and their market prices may be more volatile.
We incur significant costs as a result of being a public company, which costs will grow after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”
We incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses as a public company that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and Nasdaq Capital Market, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of : (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following May 23, 2022, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least US$1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the prior June 30th; and (2) the date on which we have issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.
Compliance with these rules and regulations increases our legal and financial compliance costs and makes some corporate activities more time-consuming and costlier. After we are no longer an emerging growth company, we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a public company, we have been required to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We have incurred additional costs in obtaining director and officer liability insurance. In addition, we incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.
USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately US$ , after deducting placement agent fees and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We anticipate using approximately 45% of the net proceeds from the offering to further design and development our two-seater sports car, the Tofino, approximately 45% of the net proceeds from the offering for the production of the SOLO and the remainder for working capital and for general corporate purposes. The expected use of the net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our product development efforts and market acceptance of our products. As a result, our management will have discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds from this offering for this purpose.
If you invest in our common shares, your interest in our common shares will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the offering price per unit and the pro forma net tangible book value per common share after the offering. Dilution results from the fact that the per unit offering price is substantially in excess of the book value per common share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding common shares. Our net tangible book value attributable to shareholders at September 30, 2018 was $15,590,624 or approximately $0.56 per common share. Net tangible book value per common share as of September 30, 2018 represents the amount of total assets less intangible assets and total liabilities, divided by the number of common shares outstanding.
Our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of our common shares as of September 30, 2018 gives effect to the sale of common shares at the offering price of US$ (or $ converted as using the noon-buying rate for Canadian dollars as certified for custom purposes by the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank of New York on March , 2019) per common share, after deducting the placement agent’s fees and estimated offering expenses. We will issue common shares outstanding upon completion of the offering. Our post offering pro forma net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018, which gives effect to receipt of the net proceeds from the offering and issuance of additional shares in the offering but does not take into consideration any other changes in our net tangible book value after September 30, 2018, will be approximately $ or $ per common share. This would result in dilution to investors in this offering of approximately $ per common share or approximately %. Net tangible book value per common share would increase to the benefit of present shareholders by $ per share attributable to the purchase of the common shares by investors in this offering.
The following table sets forth the estimated net tangible book value per common share after the offering and the dilution to persons purchasing units based on the foregoing offering assumptions.
|Offering price per common share (US$)||US$|
|Offering Price ($)||$|
|Net tangible book value per common share before the offering||$|
|Increase per common share attributable to payments by new investors||$|
|Pro forma net tangible book value per common share after the offering||$|
|Dilution per common share to new investors||$|
|(1)||U.S. dollar amounts converted into $ using the noon-buying rate for Canadian dollars as certified for custom purposes by the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank of New York on March , 2019.|
If any common shares are issued upon exercise of outstanding options or warrants, you may experience further dilution.
The above table is based on 27,786,111 shares outstanding as of September 30, 2018 does not include, as of that date:
|●||27,786,111 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance in connection with future awards under our equity compensation plans;|
|●||4,343,750 shares of our common stock that have been reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of $2.62; and|
|●||18,171,450 shares of our common stock that have been reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding options with a weighted average exercise price of $5.44.|
LIMITATIONS ON RIGHTS OF NON-CANADIANS
Electrameccanica is incorporated pursuant to the laws of the Province of British Columbia, Canada. There is no law or governmental decree or regulation in Canada that restricts the export or import of capital, or affects the remittance of dividends, interest or other payments to a non-resident holder of common shares, other than withholding tax requirements. Any such remittances to United States residents are generally subject to withholding tax, however no such remittances are likely in the foreseeable future. See “Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations For United States Residents,” below.
There is no limitation imposed by Canadian law or by the charter or other constituent documents of our company on the right of a non-resident to hold or vote common shares of our company. However, the Investment Canada Act (Canada) (the “Investment Act”) has rules regarding certain acquisitions of shares by non-residents, along with other requirements under that legislation.
The following discussion summarizes the principal features of the Investment Act for a non-resident who proposes to acquire common shares of our company. The discussion is general only; it is not a substitute for independent legal advice from an investor’s own advisor; and it does not anticipate statutory or regulatory amendments.
The Investment Act is a federal statute of broad application regulating the establishment and acquisition of Canadian businesses by non-Canadians, including individuals, governments or agencies thereof, corporations, partnerships, trusts or joint ventures (each an “entity”). Investments by non-Canadians to acquire control over existing Canadian businesses or to establish new ones are either reviewable or notifiable under the Investment Act. If an investment by a non-Canadian to acquire control over an existing Canadian business is reviewable under the Investment Act, the Investment Act generally prohibits implementation of the investment unless, after review, the Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, is satisfied that the investment is likely to be of net benefit to Canada.
A non-Canadian would acquire control of our company for the purposes of the Investment Act through the acquisition of common shares if the non-Canadian acquired a majority of the common shares of our company.
Further, the acquisition of less than a majority but one-third or more of the common shares of our company would be presumed to be an acquisition of control of our company unless it could be established that, on the acquisition, our company was not controlled in fact by the acquirer through the ownership of common shares.
For a direct acquisition that would result in an acquisition of control of our company, subject to the exception for “WTO-investors” that are controlled by persons who are resident in World Trade Organization (“WTO”) member nations, a proposed investment would be reviewable where the value of the acquired assets is $5 million or more, or if an order for review was made by the federal cabinet on the grounds that the investment related to Canada’s cultural heritage or national identity, where the value of the acquired assets is less than $5 million.
For a proposed indirect acquisition by an investor other than a so-called WTO investor that would result in an acquisition of control of our company through the acquisition of a non-Canadian parent entity, the investment would be reviewable where the value of the assets of the entity carrying on the Canadian business, and of all other entities in Canada, the control of which is acquired, directly or indirectly is $50 million or more. The threshold is reduced to $5 million or more for a direct acquisition of control of the company by a non-WTO investor.
In the case of a direct acquisition by or from a “WTO investor”, the threshold is significantly higher. An investment in common shares of our company by a WTO investor would be reviewable only if it was an investment to acquire control of the company and the enterprise value of the assets of the company was equal to or greater than a specified amount, which is published by the Minister after its determination for any particular year. This amount is $1.045 billion (unless the WTO investor is controlled by persons who are resident in a country that is a party to one of a list of certain free trade agreements, in which case the amount is $1.568 billion); each January 1, both thresholds are adjusted by a GDP (Gross Domestic Product) based index.
The higher WTO threshold for direct investments and the exemption for indirect investments do not apply where the relevant Canadian business is carrying on a “cultural business”. The acquisition of a Canadian business that is a “cultural business” is subject to lower review thresholds under the Investment Act because of the perceived sensitivity of the cultural sector.
In 2009, amendments were enacted to the Investment Act concerning investments that may be considered injurious to national security. If the Minister has reasonable grounds to believe that an investment by a non-Canadian “could be injurious to national security,” the Minister may send the non-Canadian a notice indicating that an order for review of the investment may be made. The review of an investment on the grounds of national security may occur whether or not an investment is otherwise subject to review on the basis of net benefit to Canada or otherwise subject to notification under the Investment Act.
Certain transactions, except those to which the national security provisions of the Investment Act may apply, relating to common shares of our company are exempt from the Investment Act, including
|(a)||the acquisition of our common shares by a person in the ordinary course of that person’s business as a trader or dealer in securities,|
|(b)||the acquisition of control of our company in connection with the realization of security granted for a loan or other financial assistance and not for a purpose related to the provisions on the Investment Act, if the acquisition is subject to approval under the Bank Act, the Cooperative Credit Associations Act, the Insurance Companies Act or the Trust and Loan Companies Act, and|
|(c)||the acquisition of control of our company by reason of an amalgamation, merger, consolidation or corporate reorganization following which the ultimate direct or indirect control in fact of our company, through the ownership of common shares, remained unchanged.|
MATERIAL INCOME TAX INFORMATION
Certain Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations For United States Residents
The following is a summary of certain Canadian federal income tax considerations generally applicable to the holding and disposition of our securities acquired by a holder who, at all relevant times, (a) for the purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada) (the “Tax Act”) (i) is not resident, or deemed to be resident, in Canada, (ii) deals at arm’s length with us and the placement agent, and is not affiliated with us or the placement agent, (iii) holds our common shares as capital property, (iv) does not use or hold the common shares in the course of carrying on, or otherwise in connection with, a business carried on or deemed to be carried on in Canada and (v) is not a “registered non-resident insurer” or “authorized foreign bank” (each as defined in the Tax Act), or other holder of special status, and (b) for the purposes of the Canada-U.S. Tax Convention (the “Tax Treaty”), is a resident of the United States, has never been a resident of Canada, does not have and has not had, at any time, a permanent establishment or fixed base in Canada, and who otherwise qualifies for the full benefits of the Tax Treaty. Holders who meet all the criteria in clauses (a) and (b) above are referred to herein as “U.S. Holders”, and this summary only addresses such U.S. Holders.
This summary does not deal with special situations, such as the particular circumstances of traders or dealers, tax exempt entities, insurers or financial institutions, or other holders of special status or in special circumstances. Such holders, and all other holders who do not meet the criteria in clauses (a) and (b) above, should consult their own tax advisors.
This summary is based on the current provisions of the Tax Act, the regulations thereunder in force at the date hereof (“Regulations”), the current provisions of the Tax Treaty, and our understanding of the administrative and assessing practices of the Canada Revenue Agency published in writing prior to the date hereof. This summary takes into account all specific proposals to amend the Tax Act and Regulations publicly announced by or on behalf of the Minister of Finance (Canada) prior to the date hereof (the “Proposed Amendments”) and assumes that such Proposed Amendments will be enacted in the form proposed. However, such Proposed Amendments might not be enacted in the form proposed, or at all. This summary does not otherwise take into account or anticipate any changes in law or administrative or assessing practices, whether by legislative, governmental or judicial decision or action, nor does it take into account tax laws of any province or territory of Canada or of any other jurisdiction outside Canada, which may differ significantly from those discussed in this summary.
For the purposes of the Tax Act, all amounts relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of our securities must generally be expressed in Canadian dollars. Amounts denominated in United States currency generally must be converted into Canadian dollars using the rate of exchange that is acceptable to the Canada Revenue Agency.
This summary is of a general nature only and is not intended to be, nor should it be construed to be, legal or tax advice to any particular U.S. Holder, and no representation with respect to the Canadian federal income tax consequences to any particular U.S. Holder or prospective U.S. Holder is made. This summary is not exhaustive of all Canadian federal income tax considerations. Accordingly, all prospective purchasers (including U.S. Holders as defined above) should consult with their own tax advisors for advice with respect to their own particular circumstances.
Withholding Tax on Dividends
Amounts paid or credited or deemed to be paid or credited as, on account or in lieu of payment of, or in satisfaction of, dividends on our common shares to a U.S. Holder will be subject to Canadian withholding tax. Under the Tax Treaty, the rate of Canadian withholding tax on dividends paid or credited by us to a U.S. Holder that beneficially owns such dividends and substantiates eligibility for the benefits of the Tax Treaty is generally 15% (unless the beneficial owner is a company that owns at least 10% of our voting stock at that time, in which case the rate of Canadian withholding tax is generally reduced to 5%)
A U.S. Holder will not be subject to tax under the Tax Act on a capital gain realized on a disposition or deemed disposition of a security, unless the security is “taxable Canadian property” to the U.S. Holder for purposes of the Tax Act and the U.S. Holder is not entitled to relief under the Tax Treaty.
Generally, the common shares will not constitute “taxable Canadian property” to a U.S. Holder at a particular time unless, at any time during the 60 month period immediately preceding the disposition, more than 50% of the fair market value of such security was derived, directly or indirectly, from one or any combination of: (i) real or immovable property situated in Canada, (ii) “Canadian resource properties” (as defined in the Tax Act), (iii) “timber resource properties” (as defined in the Tax Act), and (iv) options in respect of, or interests in, or for civil law rights in, property described in any of the foregoing whether or not the property exists. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in certain other circumstances set out in the Tax Act, common shares could also be deemed to be “taxable Canadian property”.
If the common shares become listed on a “designated stock exchange” as defined in the Tax Act and are so listed at the time of disposition, the common shares generally will not constitute “taxable Canadian property” of a U.S. Holder at that time unless, at any time during the 60 month period immediately preceding the disposition, the following two conditions are met: (i) the U.S. Holder, persons with whom the U.S. Holder did not deal at arm’s length, partnerships in which the U.S. Holder or such non-arm’s length person holds a membership interest (either directly or indirectly through one or more partnerships), or the U.S. Holder together with all such persons, owned 25% or more of the issued shares of any class or series of shares of our company; and (ii) more than 50% of the fair market value of the shares of the company was derived directly or indirectly from one or any combination of real or immovable property situated in Canada, Canadian resource properties (as defined in the Tax Act), timber resource properties (as defined in the Tax Act) or options in respect of, or interests in, or for civil law rights in, property described in any of the foregoing whether or not the property exists. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in certain other circumstances set out in the Tax Act, common shares could also be deemed to be “taxable Canadian property”.
U.S. Holders who may hold common shares as “taxable Canadian property” should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the application of Canadian capital gains taxation, any potential relief under the Tax Treaty, and special compliance procedures under the Tax Act, none of which is described in this summary.
Certain Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations
The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a U.S. Holder (as defined below) arising from the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our securities. This summary applies only to U.S. Holders that acquire securities in this offering and does not apply to any subsequent U.S. Holder of our common shares.
This summary is for general information purposes only and does not purport to be a complete analysis or listing of all potential U.S. federal income tax considerations that may apply to a U.S. Holder as a result of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common shares. In addition, this summary does not take into account the individual facts and circumstances of any particular U.S. Holder that may affect the U.S. federal income tax consequences to such U.S. Holder, including specific tax consequences to a U.S. Holder under an applicable tax treaty. Accordingly, this summary is not intended to be, and should not be construed as, legal or U.S. federal income tax advice with respect to any particular U.S. Holder. In addition, this summary does not address the U.S. federal alternative minimum, net investment income, U.S. federal estate and gift, U.S. Medicare contribution, U.S. state and local, or non-U.S. tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common shares. Except as specifically set forth below, this summary does not discuss applicable tax reporting requirements. Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax advisor regarding all U.S. federal, U.S. state and local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common shares.
No opinion from U.S. legal counsel or ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) has been requested, or will be obtained, regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common shares. This summary is not binding on the IRS, and the IRS is not precluded from taking a position that is different from, or contrary to, any position taken in this summary. In addition, because the authorities upon which this summary is based are subject to various interpretations, the IRS and the U.S. courts could disagree with one or more of the positions taken in this summary.
Scope of This Disclosure
This summary is based on the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), Treasury Regulations (whether final, temporary, or proposed), published rulings of the IRS, published administrative positions of the IRS, the Convention Between Canada and the United States of America with Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital, signed September 26, 1980, as amended (the “Canada-U.S. Tax Convention”), and U.S. court decisions that are applicable and, in each case, as in effect and available, as of the date hereof. Any of the authorities on which this summary is based could be changed in a material and adverse manner at any time, and any such change could be applied on a retroactive or prospective basis, which could affect the U.S. federal income tax considerations described in this summary. This summary does not discuss the potential effects, whether adverse or beneficial, of any proposed legislation that, if enacted, could be applied on a retroactive or prospective basis.
For purposes of this summary, the term “U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of our common shares that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:
|•||an individual who is a citizen or resident of the U.S.;|
|•||a corporation (or other entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the U.S., any state thereof or the District of Columbia;|
|•||an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or|
|•||a trust that (a) is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the U.S. and the control of one or more U.S. persons for all substantial decisions or (b) has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.|
Transactions Not Addressed
This summary does not address the tax consequences of transactions effected prior or subsequent to, or concurrently with, any purchase of common shares in this offering (whether or not any such transactions are undertaken in connection with the purchase of common shares pursuant to this offering).
U.S. Holders Subject to Special U.S. Federal Income Tax Rules Not Addressed
This summary does not address the U.S. federal income tax considerations of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our securities by U.S. Holders that are subject to special provisions under the Code, including, but not limited to, the following: (a) tax-exempt organizations, qualified retirement plans, individual retirement accounts, or other tax-deferred accounts; (b) financial institutions, underwriters, insurance companies, real estate investment trusts, or regulated investment companies; (c) broker-dealers, dealers, or traders in securities or currencies that elect to apply a “mark-to-market” accounting method; (d) U.S. Holders that have a “functional currency” other than the U.S. dollar; (e) U.S. Holders that own our securities as part of a straddle, hedging transaction, conversion transaction, constructive sale, or other arrangement involving more than one position; (f) U.S. Holders that acquire our securities in connection with the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation for services; (g) U.S. Holders that hold our securities other than as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment purposes); and (h) U.S. Holders that own directly, indirectly, or by attribution, 10% or more, by voting power, of our outstanding stock. This summary also does not address the U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to U.S. Holders who are: (a) U.S. expatriates or former long-term residents of the U.S.; (b) persons that have been, are, or will be a resident or deemed to be a resident in Canada for purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada); (c) persons that use or hold, will use or hold, or that are or will be deemed to use or hold our securities in connection with carrying on a business in Canada; (d) persons whose securities in our company constitute “taxable Canadian property” under the Income Tax Act (Canada); or (e) persons that have a permanent establishment in Canada for purposes of the Canada-U.S. Tax Convention. U.S. Holders that are subject to special provisions under the Code, including U.S. Holders described immediately above, should consult their own tax advisors regarding all U.S. federal, U.S. state and local, and non-U.S. tax consequences (including the potential application and operation of any income tax treaties) relating to the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common shares.
If an entity or arrangement that is classified as a partnership (or other “pass-through” entity) for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common shares, the U.S. federal income tax consequences to such partnership and the partners (or other owners) of such partnership of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common shares generally will depend on the activities of the partnership and the status of such partners (or other owners). This summary does not address the U.S. federal income tax considerations for any such partner or partnership (or other “pass-through” entity or its owners). Owners of entities and arrangements that are classified as partnerships (or other “pass-through” entities) for U.S. federal income tax purposes should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common shares.
Acquisition of Our Securities
A U.S. Holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon the acquisition of our securities for cash pursuant to this offering. A U.S. Holder’s holding period for such common shares will begin on the day after the acquisition.
Ownership and Disposition of Our Common Shares
Distributions on Our Common Shares
Subject to the “passive foreign investment company” (“PFIC”) rules discussed below (see “Tax Consequences if the Company is a PFIC”), a U.S. Holder that receives a distribution, including a constructive distribution, with respect to our common shares will be required to include the amount of such distribution in gross income as a dividend (without reduction for any Canadian income tax withheld from such distribution) to the extent of the current or accumulated “earnings and profits” of the Company, as computed for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To the extent that a distribution exceeds the current and accumulated “earnings and profits” of the Company, such distribution will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of a U.S. Holder’s tax basis in our common shares and thereafter as gain from the sale or exchange of such common shares (see “Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Shares” below). However, the Company may not maintain calculations of earnings and profits in accordance with U.S. federal income tax principles, and each U.S. Holder should therefore assume that any distribution by the Company with respect to our common shares will constitute a dividend. Dividends received on our common shares generally will not be eligible for the “dividends received deduction” available to U.S. corporate shareholders receiving dividends from U.S. corporations. If the Company is eligible for the benefits of the Canada-U.S. Tax Convention or our common shares is readily tradable on an established securities market in the U.S., dividends paid by the Company to non-corporate U.S. Holders generally will be eligible for the preferential tax rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided certain holding period and other conditions are satisfied, including that the Company not be classified as a PFIC in the tax year of distribution or in the preceding tax year. The dividend rules are complex, and each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax advisor regarding the application of such rules.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Shares
Subject to the PFIC rules discussed below, upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common shares, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash plus the fair market value of any property received and such U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the common shares sold or otherwise disposed of. Such capital gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if, at the time of the sale or other taxable disposition, the U.S. Holder’s holding period for such security is more than one year. Preferential tax rates apply to long-term capital gains of non-corporate U.S. Holders. There are currently no preferential tax rates for long-term capital gains of a U.S. Holder that is a corporation. Deductions for capital losses are subject to significant limitations under the Code.
PFIC Status of the Company
If the Company is or becomes a PFIC, the preceding sections of this summary may not describe the U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of the ownership and disposition of our common shares. The U.S. federal income tax consequences of owning and disposing of our common shares if the Company is or becomes a PFIC are described below under the heading “Tax Consequences if the Company is a PFIC.”
A non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for each tax year in which (i) 75% or more of its gross income is passive income (as defined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) (the “income test”) or (ii) on average for such tax year, 50% or more (by value) of its assets either produces or is held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). For purposes of the PFIC provisions, “gross income” generally includes sales revenues less cost of goods sold, plus income from investments and from incidental or outside operations or sources, and “passive income” generally includes dividends, interest, certain rents and royalties, and certain gains from commodities or securities transactions. In determining whether or not it is a PFIC, a non-U.S. corporation is required to take into account its pro rata portion of the income and assets of each corporation in which it owns, directly or indirectly, at least a 25% interest (by value). If certain conditions are met, a start-up non-U.S. corporation is not a PFIC in the first year that it has gross income, but could be a PFIC in one or more earlier years in which it has no gross income but satisfies the asset test.
Under certain attribution and indirect ownership rules, if the Company is a PFIC, U.S. Holders will generally be deemed to own their proportionate shares of the Company’s direct or indirect equity interest in any company that is also a PFIC (a “Subsidiary PFIC”).
The Company does not know if it currently is a PFIC or was a PFIC in a prior year and, based on current business plans and financial projections, does not know if it will be a PFIC in subsequent tax years. The determination of PFIC status is inherently factual, is subject to a number of uncertainties, and can be determined only annually after the close of the tax year in question. Additionally, the analysis depends, in part, on the application of complex U.S. federal income tax rules, which are subject to differing interpretations. We might be determined to be a PFIC for the current tax year or any prior or future tax year, and no opinion of legal counsel or ruling from the IRS concerning the status of the Company as a PFIC has been obtained or will be requested. U.S. Holders should consult their own U.S. tax advisors regarding the PFIC status of the Company.
Tax Consequences if the Company is a PFIC
If the Company is a PFIC for any tax year during which a U.S. Holder owns our common shares, special rules may increase such U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability with respect to the ownership and disposition of such common shares. If the Company meets the income test or the asset test for any tax year during which a U.S. Holder owns our common shares, the Company will be treated as a PFIC with respect to such U.S. Holder for that tax year and for all subsequent tax years, regardless of whether the Company meets the income test or the asset test for such subsequent tax years, unless the U.S. Holder elects to recognize any unrealized gain in such common shares or makes a timely and effective QEF Election or, if applicable, Mark-to-Market Election.
Under the default PFIC rules:
|•||any gain realized on the sale or other disposition (including dispositions and certain other events that would not otherwise be treated as taxable events) of our common shares (including an indirect disposition of the stock of any Subsidiary PFIC) and any “excess distribution” (defined as a distribution to the extent it, together with all other distributions received in the relevant tax year, exceeds 125% of the average annual distribution received during the preceding three years) received on our common shares or with respect to the stock of a Subsidiary PFIC will be allocated ratably to each day of such U.S. Holder’s holding period for our common shares;|
|•||the amount allocated to the current tax year and any year prior to the first year in which the Company was a PFIC will be taxed as ordinary income in the current year;|
|•||the amount allocated to each of the other tax years (the “Prior PFIC Years”) will be subject to tax at the highest ordinary income tax rate in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year;|
|•||an interest charge will be imposed with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each Prior PFIC Year, which interest charge is not deductible by non-corporate U.S. Holders; and|
|•||any loss realized on the disposition of our common shares generally will not be recognized.|
A U.S. Holder that makes a timely and effective “mark-to-market” election under Section 1296 of the Code (a “Mark-to-Market Election”) or a timely and effective election to treat the Company and each Subsidiary PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” (a “QEF”) under Section 1295 of the Code (a “QEF Election”) may generally mitigate or avoid the PFIC consequences described above with respect to our common shares.
If a U.S. Holder makes a timely and effective QEF Election, the U.S. Holder must include currently in gross income each year its pro rata share of the Company’s ordinary income and net capital gains, regardless of whether such income and gains are actually distributed. Thus, a U.S. Holder could have a tax liability with respect to such ordinary income or gains without a corresponding receipt of cash from the Company. If the Company is a QEF with respect to a U.S. Holder, the U.S. Holder’s basis in our common shares will be increased to reflect the amount of the taxed but undistributed income. Distributions of income that had previously been taxed will result in a corresponding reduction of basis in our common shares and will not be taxed again as a distribution to a U.S. Holder. Taxable gains on the disposition of our common shares by a U.S. Holder that has made a timely and effective QEF Election are generally capital gains. A U.S. Holder must make a QEF Election for the Company and each Subsidiary PFIC if it wishes to have this treatment. To make a QEF Election, a U.S. Holder will need to have an annual information statement from the Company setting forth the ordinary income and net capital gains for the year. U.S. Holders should be aware that we might not satisfy the recordkeeping requirements that apply to a QEF or supply U.S. Holders with information such U.S. Holders require to report under the QEF rules in the event that the Company is a PFIC for any tax year.
In general, a U.S. Holder must make a QEF Election on or before the due date for filing its income tax return for the first year to which the QEF Election applies. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, a U.S. Holder will be permitted to make retroactive elections in particular circumstances, including if it had a reasonable belief that the Company was not a PFIC and filed a protective election. If a U.S. Holder owns PFIC stock indirectly through another PFIC, separate QEF Elections must be made for the PFIC in which the U.S. Holder is a direct shareholder and the Subsidiary PFIC for the QEF rules to apply to both PFICs. Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax advisor regarding the availability and desirability of, and procedure for, making a timely and effective QEF Election for the Company and any Subsidiary PFIC.
A Mark-to-Market Election may be made with respect to stock in a PFIC if such stock is “regularly traded” on a “qualified exchange or other market” (within the meaning of the Code and the applicable Treasury Regulations). A class of stock that is traded on one or more qualified exchanges or other markets is considered to be “regularly traded” for any calendar year during which such class of stock is traded in other than de minimis quantities on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter. If our common shares are considered to be “regularly traded” within this meaning, then a U.S. Holder generally will be eligible to make a Mark-to-Market Election with respect to such security but not with respect to a Subsidiary PFIC. Our common shares are listed or posted for trading on a stock quotation system and therefore considered to be “regularly traded” for this purpose.
When these securities become “regularly traded,” a U.S. Holder that makes a timely and effective Mark-to-Market Election with respect to such securities generally will be required to recognize as ordinary income in each tax year in which the Company is a PFIC an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of such stock as of the close of such taxable year over the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such stock as of the close of such taxable year. A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in our securities generally will be increased by the amount of ordinary income recognized with respect to such stock. If the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in our securities as of the close of a tax year exceeds the fair market value of such stock as of the close of such taxable year, the U.S. Holder generally will recognize an ordinary loss, but only to the extent of net mark-to-market income recognized with respect to such stock for all prior taxable years. A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in our securities generally will be decreased by the amount of ordinary loss recognized with respect to such stock. Any gain recognized upon a disposition of our common shares generally will be treated as ordinary income, and any loss recognized upon a disposition generally will be treated as ordinary loss to the extent of the net mark-to-market income recognized for all prior taxable years. Any loss recognized in excess thereof will be taxed as a capital loss. Capital losses are subject to significant limitations under the Code. Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax advisor regarding the availability and desirability of, and procedure for, making a timely and effective Mark-to-Market Election with respect to our common shares.
Foreign Tax Credit
A U.S. Holder that pays (whether directly or through withholding) Canadian income tax in connection with the ownership or disposition of our common shares may be entitled, at the election of such U.S. Holder, to receive either a deduction or a credit for such Canadian income tax paid. Generally, a credit will reduce a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability on a dollar-for-dollar basis, whereas a deduction will reduce a U.S. Holder’s income subject to U.S. federal income tax. This election is made on a year-by-year basis and applies to all creditable foreign taxes paid (whether directly or through withholding) by a U.S. Holder during a year.
Complex limitations apply to the foreign tax credit, including the general limitation that the credit cannot exceed the proportionate share of a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability that such U.S. Holder’s “foreign source” taxable income bears to such U.S. Holder’s worldwide taxable income. In applying this limitation, a U.S. Holder’s various items of income and deduction must be classified, under complex rules, as either “foreign source” or “U.S. source.” Generally, dividends paid by a non-U.S. corporation should be treated as foreign source for this purpose, and gains recognized on the sale of securities of a non-U.S. corporation by a U.S. Holder should be treated as U.S. source for this purpose, except as otherwise provided in an applicable income tax treaty, and if an election is properly made under the Code. However, the amount of a distribution with respect to our common shares that is treated as a “dividend” may be lower for U.S. federal income tax purposes than it is for Canadian federal income tax purposes, resulting in a reduced foreign tax credit allowance to a U.S. Holder. In addition, this limitation is calculated separately with respect to specific categories of income. The foreign tax credit rules are complex, and each U.S. Holder should consult its own U.S. tax advisor regarding the foreign tax credit rules.
Special rules apply to the amount of foreign tax credit that a U.S. Holder may claim on a distribution, including a constructive distribution, from a PFIC. Subject to such special rules, non-U.S. taxes paid with respect to any distribution in respect of stock in a PFIC are generally eligible for the foreign tax credit. The rules relating to distributions by a PFIC and their eligibility for the foreign tax credit are complicated, and a U.S. Holder should consult its own tax advisor regarding their application to the U.S. Holder.
Receipt of Foreign Currency
The amount of any distribution or proceeds paid in Canadian dollars to a U.S. Holder in connection with the ownership, sale or other taxable disposition of our common shares, will be included in the gross income of a U.S. Holder as translated into U.S. dollars calculated by reference to the exchange rate prevailing on the date of actual or constructive receipt of the payment, regardless of whether the Canadian dollars are converted into U.S. dollars at that time. If the Canadian dollars received are not converted into U.S. dollars on the date of receipt, a U.S. Holder will have a basis in the Canadian dollars equal to their U.S. dollar value on the date of receipt. Any U.S. Holder who receives payment in Canadian dollars and engages in a subsequent conversion or other disposition of the Canadian dollars may have a foreign currency exchange gain or loss that would be treated as ordinary income or loss, and generally will be U.S. source income or loss for foreign tax credit purposes. Different rules apply to U.S. Holders who use the accrual method with respect to foreign currency. Each U.S. Holder should consult its own U.S. tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of receiving, owning, and disposing of Canadian dollars.
Information Reporting; Backup Withholding
Under U.S. federal income tax law, certain categories of U.S. Holders must file information returns with respect to their investment in, or involvement in, a non-U.S. corporation. For example, U.S. return disclosure obligations (and related penalties) are imposed on individuals who are U.S. Holders that hold certain specified foreign financial assets in excess of certain threshold amounts. The definition of “specified foreign financial assets” includes not only financial accounts maintained in non-U.S. financial institutions, but also, if held for investment and not in an account maintained by certain financial institutions, any stock or security issued by a non-U.S. person, any financial instrument or contract that has an issuer or counterparty other than a U.S. person and any interest in a non-U.S. entity. A U.S. Holder may be subject to these reporting requirements unless such U.S. Holder’s shares of our common shares are held in an account at certain financial institutions. Penalties for failure to file certain of these information returns are substantial. U.S. Holders should consult with their own tax advisors regarding the requirements of filing information returns on IRS Form 8938 for specified foreign financial assets, filing obligations relating to the PFIC rules including possible reporting on IRS Form 8621, and any other applicable reporting requirements.
Payments made within the U.S. or by a U.S. payor or U.S. middleman of (a) distributions on our common shares, and (b) proceeds arising from the sale or other taxable disposition of our common shares generally will be subject to information reporting. In addition, backup withholding, currently at a rate of 24%, may apply to such payments if a U.S. Holder (a) fails to furnish such U.S. Holder’s correct
U.S. taxpayer identification number (“TIN”) (generally on Form W-9), (b) furnishes an incorrect U.S. TIN, (c) is notified by the IRS that such U.S. Holder has previously failed to properly report items subject to backup withholding, or (d) fails to certify, under penalty of perjury, that such U.S. Holder has furnished its correct U.S. TIN and that the IRS has not notified such U.S. Holder that it is subject to backup withholding. Certain exempt persons generally are excluded from these information reporting and backup withholding rules. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the U.S. backup withholding rules are allowed as a credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, or will be refunded, if such U.S. Holder furnishes required information to the IRS in a timely manner. The information reporting and backup withholding rules may apply even if, under the Canada-U.S. Tax Convention, payments are exempt from dividend withholding tax or otherwise eligible for a reduced withholding rate.
The discussion of reporting requirements set forth above is not intended to constitute an exhaustive description of all reporting requirements that may apply to a U.S. Holder. A failure to satisfy certain reporting requirements may result in an extension of the time period during which the IRS can assess a tax, and, under certain circumstances, such an extension may apply to assessments of amounts unrelated to any unsatisfied reporting requirement. Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax advisor regarding the information reporting and backup withholding rules.
Certain Reporting Requirements
A U.S. Holder that acquires common shares generally will be required to file Form 926 with the IRS if (1) immediately after the acquisition such U.S. Holder, directly or indirectly, owns at least 10% of the common shares, or (2) the amount of cash transferred in exchange for common shares during the 12-month period ending on the date of the acquisition exceeds US$100,000. Significant penalties may apply for failing to satisfy these filing requirements. U.S. Holders are urged to contact their tax advisors regarding these filing requirements.
THE ABOVE SUMMARY IS NOT INTENDED TO CONSTITUTE A COMPLETE ANALYSIS OF ALL U.S. TAX CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE TO U.S. HOLDERS WITH RESPECT TO THE ACQUISITION, OWNERSHIP OR DISPOSITION OF OUR COMMON SHARES. U.S. HOLDERS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS AS TO THE TAX CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE TO THEM IN THEIR PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
Roth Capital Partners, LLC, which we refer to as the placement agent, has agreed to act as the exclusive placement agent in connection with this offering subject to the terms and conditions of a placement agent agreement, dated March , 2019. The placement agent may engage selected dealers to assist in the placement of our common shares offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. The placement agent is not purchasing or selling any of our common shares offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, nor is it required to arrange the purchase or sale of any specific number or dollar amount of our common shares, but has agreed to use its commercially reasonable “best efforts” to arrange for the sale of all of our common shares offered hereby. We will enter into securities purchase agreements directly with investors in connection with this offering, and we may not sell the entire amount of shares offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. The public offering price of the shares offered hereby has been determined based upon arm’s-length negotiations between the purchasers and us.
The placement agent proposes to arrange for the sale to one or more purchasers of our common shares offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus through direct subscription agreements between the purchasers and us.
Commissions and Expenses
We have agreed to pay the placement agent an aggregate cash placement fee equal to 7 percent of the gross proceeds in this offering received from investors introduced by the placement agent and [---]% of the aggregate gross proceeds in this offering from investors introduced by us.
The following table shows the per share and total cash placement agent’s fees we will pay to the placement agent in connection with the sale of our common shares offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus assuming the purchase of all of the shares offered hereby:
Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to closing in this offering, the actual total placement agent fees, if any, are not presently determinable and may be substantially less than the maximum amount set forth above. We have also agreed to reimburse the placement agent for its out-of-pocket expenses in an amount not to exceed $75,000 without our prior approval, such approval not to be unreasonably withheld.
Our obligation to issue and sell shares of our common stock to the purchasers is subject to the conditions set forth in the subscription agreements, which may be waived by us at our discretion. A purchaser’s obligation to purchase our common shares is subject to the conditions set forth in his or her subscription agreement as well, which may also be waived.
We currently anticipate that the sale of our common shares offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus will be completed on or about March , 2019. We estimate the total offering expenses of this offering that will be payable by us, excluding the placement agent’s fees, will be approximately $ , which includes legal and printing costs, various other fees and reimbursement of the placements agent’s expenses.
We have agreed to indemnify the placement agent against liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. We have also agreed to contribute to payments the placement agent may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.
We and our officers and directors have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, for a period of 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, not to offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge, grant any option to purchase, make any short sale or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock without the prior written consent of the placement agent. The placement agent may, in its sole discretion and at any time or from time to time before the termination of the lock-up period, without notice, release all or any portion of the securities subject to lock-up agreements.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus may be made available in electronic format on websites or through other online services maintained by the placement agent, or by an affiliate. Other than this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, the information on the placement agent’s website and any information contained in any other website maintained by the placement agent is not part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus form a part, has not been approved and/or endorsed by us or the placement agent, and should not be relied upon by investors.
The foregoing does not purport to be a complete statement of the terms and conditions of the placement agent agreement and subscription agreements. A copy of the placement agent agreement and the form of subscription agreement with the purchasers are included as exhibits to our current report on Form 8-K that will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part. See “Where You Can Find Additional Information” on page [ ].
Regulation M Restrictions
The placement agent may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act, and any commissions received by it and any profit realized on the resale of our common shares sold by it while acting as a principal might be deemed to be underwriting discounts or commissions under the Securities Act. As an underwriter, the placement agent would be required to comply with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including, without limitation, Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act and Rule 10b-5 and Regulation M under the Exchange Act. These rules and regulations may limit the timing of purchases and sales of our common shares by the placement agent acting as a principal. Under these rules and regulations, the placement agent:
|•||must not engage in any stabilization activity in connection with our common stock; and|
|•||must not bid for or purchase any of our securities or attempt to induce any person to purchase any of our common stock, other than as permitted under the Exchange Act, until it has completed its participation in the distribution.|
Passive Market Making
In connection with this offering, the placement agent and any selling group members may engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on The Nasdaq Stock Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, during a period before the commencement of offers or sales of common stock and extending through the completion of the distribution. A passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid of that security. However, if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, that bid must then be lowered when specified purchase limits are exceeded.
From time to time, the placement agent and its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, financial advisory and other services to us and our affiliates for which services they have received, and may in the future receive, customary fees. In the course of their businesses, the placement agent and its affiliates may actively trade our securities or loans for their own account or for the accounts of customers, and, accordingly, the placement agent and its affiliates may at any time hold long or short positions in such securities or loans. Except for services provided in connection with this offering, the placement agent has not provided any investment banking or other financial services during the 180-day period preceding the date of this prospectus supplement and we do not expect to retain the placement agent to perform any investment banking or other financial services for at least 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.
NOTICE TO INVESTORS
Notice to Investors in the United Kingdom
In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a “Relevant Member State”) an offer to the public of any securities which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus] may not be made in that Relevant Member State except that an offer to the public in that Relevant Member State of any such securities may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Directive, if they have been implemented in that Relevant Member State:
(a) to legal entities which are authorized or regulated to operate in the financial markets or, if not so authorized or regulated, whose corporate purpose is solely to invest in securities;
(b) to any legal entity which has two or more of (1) an average of at least 250 employees during the last financial year; (2) a total balance sheet of more than €43,000,000 and (3) an annual net turnover of more than €50,000,000, as shown in its last annual or consolidated accounts;
(c) by the underwriter to fewer than 100 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive); or
(d) in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive, provided that no such offer of these securities shall result in a requirement for the publication by the issuer or the underwriter of a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any of the securities in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any such securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase any such securities, as the same may be varied in that Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Member State and the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC and includes any relevant implementing measure in each Relevant Member State.
Each placement agent has represented, warranted and agreed that:
(a) it has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated any invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (the FSMA)) received by it in connection with the issue or sale of any of the securities in circumstances in which section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to the issuer; and
(b) it has complied with and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to the securities in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.
European Economic Area
In particular, this document does not constitute an approved prospectus in accordance with European Commission’s Regulation on Prospectuses no. 809/2004 and no such prospectus is to be prepared and approved in connection with this offering. Accordingly, in relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive (being the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2003/71/EC and including any relevant implementing measure in each Relevant Member State) (each, a Relevant Member State), with effect from and including the date on which the Prospectus Directive is implemented in that Relevant Member State (the Relevant Implementation Date) an offer of securities to the public may not be made in that Relevant Member State prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to such securities which has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant Member State or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant Member State and notified to the competent authority in that Relevant Member State, all in accordance with the Prospectus Directive, except that it may, with effect from and including the Relevant Implementation Date, make an offer of securities to the public in that Relevant Member State at any time:
• to legal entities which are authorized or regulated to operate in the financial markets or, if not so authorized or regulated, whose corporate purpose is solely to invest in securities;
• to any legal entity which has two or more of (1) an average of at least 250 employees during the last financial year; (2) a total balance sheet of more than €43,000,000; and (3) an annual net turnover of more than €50,000,000, as shown in the last annual or consolidated accounts; or
• in any other circumstances which do not require the publication by the Issuer of a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer of securities to the public” in relation to any of the securities in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the securities, as the same may be varied in that Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Member State. For these purposes the shares of our common stock offered hereby are “securities.”
EXPENSES RELATING TO THIS OFFERING
Set forth below is an itemization of the total expenses, excluding placement fees, that we expect to incur in connection with this offering, which excludes fees and expenses paid in connection with getting the registration statement under which this offering is being made (no. 333-227-883) effective. All amounts are estimates.
|Legal Fees and Expenses||US$||65,000|
|Accounting Fees and Expenses||US$||10,000|
|Printing and Engraving Expenses||US$||15,000|
Under the Placement Agency Agreement, we will pay the placement agent a fee equal to 7% of the gross proceeds of this offering. In addition to the cash commission, we will also reimburse the placement agent for up to $75,000 of accountable expenses relating to the offering, including but not limited to (i) reasonable travel and out-of-pocket expenses, (ii) legal expense and (iii) background checks.
Ortoli Rosenstadt LLP is acting as counsel to our company regarding U.S. securities law matters. The current address of Ortoli Rosenstadt LLP is 501 Madison Avenue, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10022. The validity of the securities offered hereby has been opined to by McMillan LLP, acting as our Canadian counsel. The current address of McMillan LLP is Royal Centre, 1055 W. Georgia Street, Suite 1500, PO Box 11117, Vancouver, British Columbia V6E 4N7.
Lowenstein Sandler LLP is acting as counsel to the placement agent. Their current address is 1251 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020.
The financial statements of Electrameccanica Vehicles Corp. as of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 and for the years respectively then ended included in the accompanying prospectus have been so included in reliance on the report of Dale Matheson Carr-Hilton Labonte LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing. Dale Matheson Carr-Hilton Labonte LLP has offices at Suite 1500, 1140 West Pender Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6E 4G1. Their telephone number is (604) 687-4747.
INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL
None of the named experts or legal counsel was employed on a contingent basis, owns an amount of shares in our company which is material to that person, or has a material, direct or indirect economic interest in our company or that depends on the success of the offering.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information about us by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We incorporate by reference:
|•||the documents and reports set out in the section entitled “Incorporation by Reference” in the Prospectus;|
|•||the documents and reports filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act between the date of the prospectus and this prospectus supplement;|
|•||other documents and reports furnished by us to the SEC on Form 6-K subsequent to the date of the prospectus, but only to the extent specifically set forth in such Form 6-K;|
|•||all documents and reports filed after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering hereunder pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934|
|•||any other documents and reports furnished by us to the SEC on Form 6-K after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering, but only to the extent specifically set forth in such Form 6-K;|
Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for the purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or supersedes that statement. The modifying or superseding statement does not need to state that it has modified or superseded a prior statement or include any other information set forth in the document that it modifies or supersedes.
Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person who receives this prospectus, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference (other than exhibits to the documents that are not specifically incorporated by reference in the documents). Please direct written or oral requests for copies to our Corporate Secretary at 102 East 1st Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V5T 1A4 or by calling 1-604-428-7656.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form F-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the common shares offered hereby. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits thereto, to which reference is hereby made. With respect to each contract, agreement or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, reference is made to such exhibit for a more complete description of the matter involved. The registration statement and the exhibits thereto filed by us with the SEC may be inspected at the public reference facility of the SEC listed below.
The registration statement, reports and other information filed or to be filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the public reference facilities maintained by the SEC at 100 F. Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20549. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding registrants that make electronic filings with the SEC using its EDGAR system.
As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our executive officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act.
ELECTRAMECCANICA VEHICLES CORP.
Roth Capital Partners
We have not authorized any dealer, salesperson or other person to give any information or represent anything not contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus does not offer to sell any shares in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful. Neither the delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, nor any sale made hereunder, shall create any implication that the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is correct after the date hereof.
Level 1 Charging
Level 2 Charging
Electric and Power Specifications
|||||120 Volt, 20 Amp circuit
|||||208 – 240 Volt, 40 Amp circuit*
6.2 – 7.6 kW**
Time to Fully Charge an EV with a 100-mile Battery
|||||17 – 25 hours||||||4 – 5 hours|||
Drivers Served per Station per Day
|||||1||||||3 – 4 or more|||
PHEV and BEV Sales January – December, 2016 US by State
EV Sales #
% of US
EVs % of
% of New US
District of Columbia
All Other States
|||||Tesla Model 3||||||Chevrolet Volt||||||Nissan Leaf|||
|||Price||||||US$15,888||||||US$28,750||||||Up to US$56,500||||||US$33,220+||||||US$29,990|||
|||Electric only miles||||||Up to 100 miles||||||
Up to 76 miles
|||||Up to 310 miles||||||
Up to 53 miles
Up to 150 miles
|||Price per Mile||||||US$155/mile||||||US$378/mile||||||US$182/mile||||||US$627/mile||||||US$199/mile|||
|||Full charge Time||||||3 hours on a 240 volt outlet||||||6 hours on a 240 volt outlet||||||13.85 hours on a 240 volt outlet||||||4.5 hours on a 240 volt outlet||||||4 hours on a 7kW charging point|||
Sales & Marketing
General & Administration
December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017
April 30, 2018
May 31, 2018
June 30, 2018
July 31, 2018
August 31, 2018
September 30, 2018
September 30, 2017
December 31, 2017
March 31, 2018
June 30, 2018
|||||||||Last Nine Months|||
SEC registration fee
Legal fees and expenses
Accounting fees and expenses
Printing fees and expenses