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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) or 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _______________ to _______________

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report _______________

Commission file number 001-38612

ELECTRAMECCANICA VEHICLES CORP.

(Exact name of Registrant specified in its charter)

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

British Columbia, Canada

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

8057 North Fraser Way, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, V5J 5M8

(Address of principal executive offices)

Bal Bhullar; (604) 428-7656; bal@electrameccanica.com

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Auditor Name: KPMG LLP

Auditor Location: Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Auditor Form ID: 85

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of Each Class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Shares, without par value

SOLO

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Warrants, each to purchase one Common Share

SOLOW

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

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Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

None

(Title of ClaVss)

Number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of business of the period covered by the annual report.

118,611,496 Common Shares Without Par Value

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer 

Accelerated Filer 

Non Accelerated Filer

Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the Registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued

Other 

 

by the International Accounting Standards Board

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the Registrant has elected to follow:        Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b 2 of the Exchange Act):

Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Not applicable.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

PART I

4

 

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

4

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

4

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

4

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

20

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

41

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

51

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

85

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

91

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

92

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

92

ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

99

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

102

 

 

PART II

102

 

 

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

102

ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

102

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

102

ITEM 16. [RESERVED]

103

ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

103

ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS

103

ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

103

ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

104

ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

104

ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT.

104

ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.

105

ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE.

106

ITEM 16I. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

106

 

 

PART III

107

 

 

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

107

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

107

ITEM 19. EXHIBITS

139

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CURRENCY OF PRESENTATION AND CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Unless the context otherwise requires, in this annual report (the “Annual Report”) the term(s) “we”, “us”, “our”, “Company”, “our company”, “ElectraMeccanica” and “our business” refer to Electrameccanica Vehicles Corp.

All references to “$” or “dollars” are expressed in United States dollars (“US” or “U.S.”)unless otherwise indicated.

Our financial statements are prepared in US dollars and presented in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or “IFRS”, as issued by International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). In this Annual Report any discrepancies in any table between totals and the sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding.

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains statements that constitute “forward-looking statements”. Any statements that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. These statements appear in a number of different places in this Annual Report and, in some cases, can be identified by words such as “anticipates”, “estimates”, “projects”, “expects”, “contemplates”, “intends”, “believes”, “plans”, “may”, “will” or their negatives or other comparable words, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report may include, but are not limited to, statements and/or information related to: strategy, future operations, the size and value of the order book and the number of orders, the number and timing of building pre-production vehicles, the projection of timing and delivery of SOLOs, eRoadster or Tofinos in the future, projected costs, expected production capacity, expectations regarding demand and acceptance of our products, estimated costs of machinery to equip a new production facility, trends in the market in which we operate and the plans and objectives of management.

Forward-looking statements are based on the reasonable assumptions, estimates, analysis and opinions made in light of our experience and our perception of trends, current conditions and expected developments, as well as other factors that we believe to be relevant and reasonable in the circumstances at the date that such statements are made, but which may prove to be incorrect. Management believes that the assumption and expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable. Assumptions have been made regarding, among other things: the Company’s ability to maintain production deliveries within certain timelines; the Company’s expected production capacity; prices for machinery to equip a new production facility; labor costs and material costs remaining consistent with the Company’s current expectations; production of SOLOs, eRoadster and Tofinos meeting expectations and being consistent with estimates; equipment operating as anticipated; there being no material variations in the current regulatory environment; and the Company’s ability to obtain financing as and when required and on reasonable terms. Readers are cautioned that the foregoing list is not exhaustive of all factors and assumptions which may have been used.

Such risks are discussed in Item 3.D - “Risk Factors” herein. In particular, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing disclosure, the statements contained in Item 4.B. – “Business Overview”, Item 5 – “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and Item 11 – “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” herein are inherently subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or achievements to differ significantly. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors include but are not limited to:

general economic and business conditions, including changes in interest rates;
prices of other electric vehicles, costs associated with manufacturing electric vehicles and other economic conditions;
natural phenomena, including the current COVID-19 pandemic;
actions by government authorities, including changes in government regulation;
uncertainties associated with legal proceedings;
changes in the electric vehicle market;
future decisions by management in response to changing conditions;
the Company’s ability to execute prospective business plans;

1

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misjudgments in the course of preparing forward-looking statements;
the Company’s ability to raise sufficient funds to carry out its proposed business plan;
consumers’ willingness to adopt three-wheeled single seat electric vehicles;
declines in the range of the Company’s electric vehicles on a single charge over time may negatively influence potential customers’ decisions to purchase such vehicles;
developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the internal combustion engine;
inability to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology;
inability to design, develop, market and sell new electric vehicles and services that address additional market opportunities;
dependency on certain key personnel and any inability to retain and attract qualified personnel;
inexperience in mass-producing electric vehicles;
inability to reduce and adequately control operating costs;
failure of the Company’s vehicles to perform as expected;
inexperience in servicing electric vehicles;
inability to succeed in establishing, maintaining and strengthening the ElectraMeccanica brand;
disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials;
the unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives;
failure to manage future growth effectively; and
labor and employment risks.

Although management has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There is no assurance that forward-looking statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. These cautionary remarks expressly qualify, in their entirety, all forward-looking statements attributable to our Company or persons acting on our Company’s behalf. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting such statements, except as, and to the extent required by, applicable securities laws. You should carefully review the cautionary statements and risk factors contained in this Annual Report and other documents that the Company may file from time to time with the securities regulators.

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IMPLICATIONS OF BEING A FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER

We are considered a foreign private issuer. In our capacity as a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from certain rules under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that impose certain disclosure obligations and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. We are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.

We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time as more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.

We have taken advantage of certain reduced reporting and other requirements in this Annual Report that are available to foreign private issuers and not to U.S. domestic companies. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive in a quarterly report on Form 10-Q from public companies required to report as U.S domestic companies in which you hold equity securities.

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PART I

The following discussion and analysis, prepared for the year ended December 31, 2021, is a review of our operations, current financial position and outlook and should be read in conjunction with our annual consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 and the notes thereto. Unless stated otherwise, all amounts herein are reported in US dollars based upon financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB. As at December 31, 2021, the Company’s functional currency is US dollars, and the presentation currency is US dollars. As at December 31, 2020, the Company’s functional currency was Canadian dollars, and the presentation currency was US dollars. The change in presentation currency is discussed in Note 3 to our annual consolidated financial statements.

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

A. Selected financial data

The selected historical consolidated financial information expressed in US dollars as set forth below has been derived from our financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018 and 2017.

Consolidated Statement of Net Loss

Year ended

Year ended  

Year ended

Year ended

Year ended  

  December 31,

December 31,

  December 31, 

  December 31, 

December 31, 

    

 2021

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

Revenues

$

2,100,770

$

568,521

$

585,584

$

599,757

$

84,203

Gross Profit (Loss)

$

(2,233,911)

$

(130,934)

$

98,041

$

155,961

$

34,880

Net Loss

$

41,326,835

$

63,046,905

$

23,212,698

$

7,745,313

$

8,766,678

Loss per Share – Basic and Diluted

$

0.37

$

1.08

$

0.64

$

0.29

$

0.40

Consolidated Statement of Financial Position

December 31,

December 31,

December 31,

December 31,

December 31,

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

Cash and cash equivalents

$

221,928,008

$

129,450,676

$

8,560,624

$

13,951,951

$

6,839,172

Current Assets

$

240,308,596

$

135,312,266

$

14,556,890

$

16,812,234

$

7,948,473

Total Assets (1)

$

252,850,698

$

145,754,382

$

23,362,963

$

21,731,661

$

10,056,138

Current Liabilities(1)

$

7,853,979

$

4,556,443

$

2,614,657

$

1,342,838

$

2,664,408

Total Liabilities(1)

$

9,712,789

$

23,075,092

$

8,733,492

$

4,846,410

$

5,567,892

Shareholders’ Equity (Deficit)

$

243,137,909

$

122,679,290

$

14,629,471

$

16,885,251

$

4,488,246

Note:

(1)IFRS 16 lease standard applied to years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019. IAS 17 lease standard applied to years ended Dec 31, 2018 and 2017.

Our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021 are attached at the end of this Annual Report.

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

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C. Reasons for the offer and use of proceeds

Not applicable.

D. Risk Factors

An investment in our securities carries a significant degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks, as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report, including our historical and pro forma financial statements and the financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report, before you decide to purchase our securities. Any one of these risks and uncertainties has the potential to cause material adverse effects on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results which could cause actual results to differ materially from any forward-looking statements expressed by us and a significant decrease in the value of our securities. Refer to “Forward-Looking Statements”.

We may not be successful in preventing the material adverse effects that any of the following risks and uncertainties may cause. These potential risks and uncertainties may not be a complete list of the risks and uncertainties facing us. There may be additional risks and uncertainties that we are presently unaware of, or presently consider immaterial, that may become material in the future and have a material adverse effect on us. You could lose all or a significant portion of your investment due to any of these risks and uncertainties.

Risks Related to our Business and Industry

We have limited cash on hand and we will require a significant amount of capital to carry out our proposed business plan to develop, manufacture, sell and service electric vehicles; there is no assurance that any amount raised through this offering will be sufficient to continue to fund operations of our Company.

We incurred a net loss and comprehensive loss of $41,326,835 and $41,326,248, respectively, during the year ended December 31, 2021, and a net loss and comprehensive loss of $63,046,905 and $58,832,999, respectively, during the year ended December 31, 2020. Although we had a cash and cash equivalents and a working capital surplus of $221,928,008 and $232,454,617, respectively, as at December 31, 2021, and of $129,450,676 and $130,755,823, respectively, as at December 31, 2020, we believe that we will need significant additional equity financing to continue operations; and among other things:

we have begun the commercial production of our flagship vehicle, the SOLO, and we expect to incur significant ramp-up in costs and expenses through the launch of the vehicle;
we have begun deliveries to customers of our flagship vehicle, the SOLO, on October 4, 2021;
we anticipate that the gross profit generated from the sale of the SOLOs will not be sufficient to cover our operating expenses, and our achieving profitability will depend, in part, on our ability to materially reduce the bill of materials and per unit manufacturing cost of our products; and
we do not anticipate that we will be eligible to obtain bank loans, or other forms of debt financing, on terms that would be acceptable to us.

We anticipate generating a significant loss for the next fiscal year.

We have minimal revenue and expect significant increases in costs and expenses to forestall profits for the foreseeable future, even if we generate revenues in the near term. Even though we have recently launched the SOLO into commercial production and deliveries, and even if we launch the Tofino or other intended electric vehicles ( each, an “EV”), they might not become commercially successful. If we are to ever achieve profitability we must have a successful commercial introduction and acceptance of our vehicles, which may not occur. We expect that our operating losses will increase substantially in 2022, and thereafter, and we also expect to continue to incur operating losses and to experience negative cash flows for the next several years.

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We have a limited operating history and have generated minimal revenues.

Our limited operating history makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult. We were formed in February 2015, and we have begun production and deliveries of our first electric vehicle. We intend to derive revenues from the sales of our SOLO vehicle, our Tofino vehicle , our e-Roadster and other intended EVs. The Tofino is still in the early design development stage, and the first commercially-produced SOLOs were delivered to certain of our initial customers commencing on October 4, 2021 and have continued to deliver to customers and fleets since the October 4 date. Our vehicles require significant investment prior to commercial introduction and may never be successfully developed or commercially successful.

We have a history of operating losses and we expect our operating losses to accelerate and materially increase for the foreseeable future.

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, we generated a net loss of $41,326,835, bringing our accumulated deficit to $151,653,994.

We have minimal revenue and expect significant increases in costs and expenses to forestall profits for the foreseeable future. We have begun the commercial production and delivery of our flagship vehicle, the SOLO, and we expect to incur significant additional costs and expenses through the launch of the vehicle. Even with the launch of the SOLO into commercial production, and even if we are able to launch the Tofino or other intended EVs, they might not become commercially successful. If we are to ever achieve profitability, we must have a successful commercial introduction and acceptance of our vehicles, which may not occur. We expect that our operating losses will increase substantially in 2022 and thereafter, and we also expect to continue to incur operating losses and to experience negative cash flows for the next several years.

We expect the rate at which we will incur losses to increase significantly in future periods from current levels as we:

design, develop and manufacture our vehicles and their components;
develop and equip our manufacturing facility;
build up inventories of parts and components for the SOLO, the Tofino and other intended EVs;
open ElectraMeccanica stores;
expand our design, development, maintenance and repair capabilities;
develop and increase our sales and marketing activities; and
develop and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations.

Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive any revenues with respect thereto, our losses in future periods will be significantly greater than the losses we would incur if we developed the business more slowly. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in profits or even revenues, which would further increase our losses.

Our ability to achieve profitability will depend, in part, on our ability to materially reduce the bill of materials and per unit manufacturing cost of our products.

We anticipate that the gross profit generated from the sale of the SOLO will not be sufficient to cover our operating expenses for the foreseeable future. To achieve our operating and strategic goals while remaining competitive, we will, among other things, need to reduce the bill of materials and the per-unit manufacturing cost of the SOLO. We expect the primary factors to contribute to a reduced bill of materials and per unit manufacturing cost to include:

continued product development to make the SOLO easier and cheaper to mass produce commercially;
our ability to utilize less expensive suppliers and components that meet the requirements for the SOLO;

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increasing the volume of components that we purchase in order to take advantage of volume-based pricing discounts;
improving assembly efficiency;
enhancing the automation of our strategic manufacturing partner’s facility to increase volume and reduce labour costs; and
increasing our volume to leverage manufacturing overhead costs.

Continued product development is subject to feasibility and engineering risks. Any increase in manufacturing volumes is dependent upon a corresponding increase in sales. The occurrence of one or more factors that negatively impact the manufacturing or sales of the SOLO, or reduce our manufacturing efficiency, may prevent us from achieving our desired reduction in manufacturing costs, which would negatively affect our operating results and may prevent us from attaining profitability.

We currently have negative operating cash flows, and if we are unable to generate positive operating cash flows in the future our viability as an operating business will be adversely affected.

We have made significant up-front investments in research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses to rapidly develop and expand our business. We are currently incurring expenditures related to our operations that have generated a negative operating cash flow. Operating cash flow may decline in certain circumstances, many of which are beyond our control. We might not generate sufficient revenues in the near future. Because we continue to incur such significant future expenditures for research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses, we may continue to experience negative cash flow until we reach a sufficient level of sales with positive gross margins to cover operating expenses. An inability to generate positive cash flow until we reach a sufficient level of sales with positive gross margins to cover operating expenses or raise additional capital on reasonable terms will adversely affect our viability as an operating business.

We may require additional capital to carry out our proposed business plan for the next 12 months if our cash on hand and revenues from the sale of our vehicles are not sufficient to cover our cash requirements.

If our cash on hand, revenue from the sale of our vehicles, if any, and cash received upon the exercise of outstanding warrants, if any are exercised, are not sufficient to cover our cash requirements, we will need to raise additional funds through the sale of our equity securities, in either private placements or registered offerings and/or debt instruments. If we are unsuccessful in raising enough funds through such capital-raising efforts we may review other financing possibilities such as bank loans. Financing might not be available to us or, if available, may not be available on terms that are acceptable to us.

Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business plan. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our current corporate structure. We might not be able to obtain any funding, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.

Terms of future financings may adversely impact your investment.

We may have to engage in common equity, debt or preferred stock financing in the future. Your rights and the value of your investment in our securities could be reduced. Interest on debt securities could increase costs and negatively impacts operating results. Preferred stock could be issued in series from time to time with such designation, rights, preferences and limitations as needed to raise capital. The terms of preferred stock could be more advantageous to those investors than to the holders of common shares. In addition, if we need to raise equity capital from the sale of common shares, institutional or other investors may negotiate terms at least as, and possibly more, favorable than the terms of your investment. Common shares which we sell could be sold into any market which develops, which could adversely affect the market price.

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Our future growth depends upon consumers’ willingness to adopt three-wheeled single-seat electric vehicles.

Our growth highly depends upon the adoption by consumers of, and we are subject to an elevated risk of, any reduced demand for alternative fuel vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. If the market for three-wheeled single seat electric vehicles does not develop as we expect, or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be negatively impacted. The market for alternative fuel vehicles is relatively new, rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, frequent new vehicle announcements and changing consumer demands and behaviors. Factors that may influence the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, and specifically electric vehicles, include:

perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety (in particular with respect to lithium-ion battery packs), design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of electric vehicles;
perceptions about vehicle safety in general and, in particular, safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technology, including vehicle electronics and braking systems;
the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge;
the decline of an electric vehicle’s range resulting from deterioration over time in the battery’s ability to hold a charge;
concerns about electric grid capacity and reliability, which could derail our efforts to promote electric vehicles as a practical solution to vehicles which require gasoline;
the availability of alternative fuel vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;
improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;
the availability of service for electric vehicles;
the environmental consciousness of consumers;
volatility in the cost of oil and gasoline;
government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternate forms of energy;
access to charging stations, standardization of electric vehicle charging systems and consumers’ perceptions about convenience and cost to charge an electric vehicle;
the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles; and
perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel.

The influence of any of the factors described above may cause current or potential customers not to purchase our electric vehicles, which would materially adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.

The range of our electric vehicles on a single charge declines over time which may negatively influence potential customers’ decisions whether to purchase our vehicles.

The range of our electric vehicles on a single charge declines principally as a function of usage, time and charging patterns. For example, a customer’s use of their vehicle as well as the frequency with which they charge the battery of their vehicle can result in additional deterioration of the battery’s ability to hold a charge. We currently expect our battery pack will retain approximately 70% of its ability to hold its initial charge after five years or 45,000 miles, whichever comes first. Such battery deterioration and the related decrease in range may negatively influence potential customer decisions whether to purchase our vehicles, which may harm our ability to market and sell our vehicles.

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Developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the internal combustion engine may materially adversely affect the demand for our electric vehicles.

Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. For example, fuel which is abundant and relatively inexpensive in North America, such as compressed natural gas, may emerge as consumers’ preferred alternative to petroleum-based propulsion. Any failure by us to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay our development and introduction of new and enhanced electric vehicles, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of our vehicles, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors.

If we are unable to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology, we may suffer a decline in our competitive position.

We may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology and, as a result, may suffer a decline in our competitive position. Any failure to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology would result in a decline in our competitive position which would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in electric vehicle technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our vehicles and introduce new models to continue to provide vehicles with the latest technology, in particular battery cell technology. However, our vehicles may not compete effectively with alternative vehicles if we are not able to source and integrate the latest technology into our vehicles. For example, we do not manufacture battery cells which makes us depend upon other suppliers of battery cell technology for our battery packs.

If we are unable to design, develop, market and sell new electric vehicles and services that address additional market opportunities, our business, prospects and operating results will suffer.

We may not be able to successfully develop new electric vehicles and services, address new market segments or develop a significantly broader customer base. To date, we have focused our business on the sale of the SOLO, a three-wheeled single seat electric vehicle, and have targeted mainly urban residents of modest means and fleets. We will need to address additional markets and expand our customer demographic to further grow our business. Our failure to address additional market opportunities would harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Demand in the vehicle industry is highly volatile.

Volatility of demand in the vehicle industry may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The markets in which we will be competing have been subject to considerable volatility in demand in recent periods. Demand for automobile sales depends to a large extent on general, economic, political and social conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As a new start-up manufacturer, we will have fewer financial resources than more established vehicle manufacturers to withstand changes in the market and disruptions in demand.

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We depend on a third-party for our near-term manufacturing needs.

In October 2017, we entered into a Manufacturing Agreement (the “Manufacturing Agreement”) with Chongqing Zongshen Automobile Industry Co., Ltd. (“Zongshen”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Zongshen Industrial Group Co. Ltd., an affiliate of Zongshen Power Machinery Co., Ltd., located in Chongqing, China, which has now been amended on June 23, 2021. The delivery of SOLO vehicles to our future customers and the revenue derived therefrom depends on Zongshen’s ability to fulfil its obligations under that Manufacturing Agreement. Zongshen’s ability to fulfil its obligations is outside of our control and depends on a variety of factors, including Zongshen’s operations, Zongshen’s financial condition and geopolitical and economic risks that could affect China. Our Manufacturing Agreement with Zongshen provides that non-performance by either us or Zongshen shall be excused to the extent that such performance is rendered impossible by strike, fire, flood, earthquake or governmental acts, orders or restrictions; provided that either we or Zongshen, as applicable, use commercially reasonable efforts to mitigate the impact of such non-performance. Notwithstanding any such efforts, any such non-performance by either us or Zongshen shall be cause for termination of the Manufacturing Agreement by the other party if the non-performance continues for more than six months. The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic or measures taken by the Chinese government relating thereto may result in non-performance by Zongshen under our Manufacturing Agreement. If Zongshen is unable to fulfil its obligations or is only able to partially fulfil its obligations under our existing Manufacturing Agreement with them, or if Zongshen either voluntarily or is forced to terminate our agreement with them, either as a result of the coronavirus outbreak, the Chinese government’s measures relating thereto, or otherwise, we will not be able to produce or sell our SOLO vehicle in the volumes anticipated and on the timetable that we anticipate, if at all.

The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which Chinese companies conduct their business activities. China is experiencing substantial problems with environmental pollution and energy consumption. Efforts by the Chinese government to control pollution and energy consumption are making it harder for Chinese factories to operate. Our Chinese manufacturers are subject to multiple laws governing environmental protection, as well as standards set by the relevant governmental authorities. It is possible that Chinese national, provincial and local governmental agencies will adopt stricter environmental and consumption controls. There can be no assurance that future changes in Chinese laws and regulations will not impose costly compliance requirements on our Chinese manufacturers or otherwise adversely affect their business activities, which in turn could increase the costs associated with operating our business or otherwise adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

The impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the global economy and our operations remains uncertain, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition and on the market price of our common shares.

In December 2019, a strain of novel coronavirus (now commonly known as COVID-19) was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 has since spread rapidly throughout many countries and, on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic. In an effort to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19, many countries, including the United States, Canada and China, have imposed unprecedented restrictions on travel, and there have been business closures and a substantial reduction in economic activity in countries that have had significant outbreaks of COVID-19. Although our manufacturing partner, Zongshen, reports that its operations have not been materially affected at this point, significant uncertainty remains as to the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our and Zongshen’s operations (including, without limitation, staffing levels), supply chains for parts and sales channels for our products, and on the global economy as a whole. It is currently not possible to predict how long the pandemic will last or the time that it will take for economic activity to return to prior levels. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant financial market volatility and uncertainty in recent weeks. A continuation or worsening of the levels of market disruption and volatility seen in the recent past could have an adverse effect on our ability to access capital, on our business, results of operations and financial condition, and on the market price of our common shares.

We do not currently have all arrangements in place that are required to allow us to fully execute our business plan.

To sell our vehicles as envisioned we will need to enter into certain additional agreements and arrangements that are not currently in place. These include entering into agreements with distributors, arranging for the transportation of the commercially-produced SOLOs to be delivered pursuant to our Manufacturing Agreement with Zongshen and obtaining battery and other essential supplies in the quantities that we require. If we are unable to enter into such agreements, or are only able to do so on terms that are unfavorable to us, we may not be able to fully carry out our business plans.

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We depend on certain key personnel, and our success will depend on our continued ability to retain and attract such qualified personnel.

Our success depends on the efforts, abilities and continued service of Kevin Pavlov, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer, Bal Bhullar, our Chief Financial Officer, Kim Brink, our Chief Revenue Officer and Isaac Moss, our Chief Administrative Officer and Corporate Secretary. A number of these key employees and consultants have significant experience in the automobile manufacturing and technology industries. A loss of service from any one of these individuals may adversely affect our operations, and we may have difficulty or may not be able to locate and hire suitable replacements. We have obtained “key person” insurance on certain key personnel.

Since we have little experience in mass-producing electric vehicles, any delays or difficulties in transitioning from producing custom vehicles to mass-producing vehicles may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects and operating results.

Our management team has experience in producing custom designed vehicles and is now switching focus to mass producing electric vehicles in a rapidly evolving and competitive market. If we are unable to implement our business plans in the timeframe estimated by management and successfully transition into a mass-producing electric vehicle manufacturing business, then our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed.

We are subject to numerous environmental and health and safety laws and any breach of such laws may have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

We are subject to numerous environmental and health and safety laws, including statutes, regulations, bylaws and other legal requirements. These laws relate to the generation, use, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of regulated substances, including hazardous substances (such as batteries), dangerous goods and waste, emissions or discharges into soil, water and air, including noise and odors (which could result in remediation obligations), and occupational health and safety matters, including indoor air quality. These legal requirements vary by location and can arise under federal, provincial, state or municipal laws. Any breach of such laws and/or requirements would have a material adverse effect on our Company and its operating results.

Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

All vehicles sold must comply with federal, state and provincial motor vehicle safety standards. In both Canada and the United States vehicles that meet or exceed all federally mandated safety standards are certified under the federal regulations. In this regard, Canadian and U.S. motor vehicle safety standards are substantially the same. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving federal certification. Failure by us to have the SOLO, the Tofino or any future model EV satisfy motor vehicle standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

If we are unable to reduce and adequately control the costs associated with operating our business, including costs associated with manufacturing, sales, materials, transportation and logistics, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects will suffer.

If we are unable to reduce and/or maintain a sufficiently low level of costs for designing, manufacturing, marketing, selling, transporting, distributing and servicing our electric vehicles relative to their selling prices, or if we experience significant increases in these costs and are unable to raise our prices to offset such increases, our operating results, gross margins, business and prospects could be materially and adversely impacted. Further, since our preorder vehicles are at fixed sales prices, if we experience significant increases in costs associated with operating our business, our profitability from these pre-order vehicles may be negatively impacted absent the flexibility to increase such sales prices.

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If our vehicles fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our electric vehicles could be harmed.

Our vehicles may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. For example, our vehicles use a substantial amount of software code to operate. Software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced. While we have performed extensive internal testing, we currently have a very limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the performance of our SOLO in the hands of our customers and currently have no frame of reference by which to evaluate the performance of our vehicles after several years of customer driving. With the e-Roadster, we are in the prototype phase, and with the Tofino, we are still in early design development phase, whereby the similar evaluations are further behind.

We have very limited experience servicing our vehicles. If we are unable to address the service and warranty requirements of our future customers our business will be materially and adversely affected.

If we are unable to successfully address the service requirements of our future customers our business and prospects will be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we anticipate the level and quality of the service we will provide our customers will have a direct impact on the success of our future vehicles. If we are unable to satisfactorily service our customers, our ability to generate customer loyalty, grow our business and sell additional vehicles could be impaired.

We have very limited experience servicing our vehicles. We have begun production of the SOLO vehicles and began deliveries during the last quarter of 2021. The total number of production SOLOs that we have produced as at December 31, 2021 is 291. The total number of SOLOs that we have produced as pre-production as of December 31, 2021 is 124 (64 from Canada and 60 from Zongshen). Throughout its history, our subsidiary, Intermeccanica International Inc. (“InterMeccanica”), has produced approximately 2,500 cars, which include providing after sales support and servicing. We only have limited experience servicing the SOLO as a limited number of SOLOs have been produced. Servicing electric vehicles on a mass scale is different than servicing electric vehicles and vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques on a mass scale.  On October 14, 2021, we announced our strategic agreement with Robert Bosch LLC (“Bosch”) to establish a service network of independent automobile repair shops approved by Bosch (the “Bosch Car Service Network”). The Bosch Car Service Network will support service and maintenance operations for ElectraMeccanica’s flagship SOLO EV beginning with commercial launch locations throughout the western United States and then expanding throughout the rest of the United States.

In addition, we presently expect that our warranty covering the SOLO will cover three years/36,000 miles and that the battery pack will cover a five year/45,000 miles warranty period. For additional information on the warranty information please visit https://www.electrameccanica.com/warranty/.

We may not succeed in establishing, maintaining and strengthening the ElectraMeccanica brand, which would materially and adversely affect customer acceptance of our vehicles and components and our business, revenues and prospects.

Our business and prospects heavily depend on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the ElectraMeccanica brand. Any failure to develop, maintain and strengthen our brand may materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our planned electric vehicles. If we are not able to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Promoting and positioning our brand will likely depend significantly on our ability to provide high quality electric vehicles and maintenance and repair services, and we have very limited experience in these areas. In addition, we expect that our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the ElectraMeccanica brand will also depend heavily on the success of our marketing efforts. To date, we have limited experience with marketing activities as we have relied primarily on the internet, word of mouth and attendance at industry trade shows to promote our brand. To further promote our brand, we may be required to change our marketing practices, which could result in substantially increased advertising expenses, including the need to use traditional media such as television, radio and print. The automobile industry is intensely competitive, and we may not be successful in building, maintaining and strengthening our brand. Many of our current and potential competitors, particularly automobile manufacturers headquartered in Detroit, Japan and the European Union, have greater name recognition, broader customer relationships and substantially greater marketing resources than we do. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.

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Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials, in particular lithium-ion cells, could harm our business.

We may experience increases in the cost or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of raw materials. Any such increase or supply interruption could materially negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We use various raw materials in our business, including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber and non-ferrous metals such as copper and cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand for these materials and could adversely affect our business and operating results. For instance, we are exposed to multiple risks relating to price fluctuations for lithium-ion cells. These risks include:

the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;
disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery cell manufacturers; and
an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells.

Our business depends on the continued supply of battery cells for our vehicles. We do not currently have any agreements for the supply of batteries and depend upon the open market for their procurement. Any disruption in the supply of battery cells from our supplier could temporarily disrupt the planned production of our vehicles until such time as a different supplier is fully qualified. Moreover, battery cell manufacturers may choose to refuse to supply electric vehicle manufacturers to the extent they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. Furthermore, current fluctuations or shortages in petroleum and other economic conditions may cause us to experience significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins if we cannot recoup the increased costs through increased electric vehicle prices. We might not be able to recoup increasing costs of raw materials by increasing vehicle prices. We have set up sales price for the base model of our SOLO to be $18,500 and we have also already announced an estimated price for the base model of our SOLO Cargo, eRoadster and the Tofino. However, any attempts to increase the announced or expected prices in response to increased raw material costs could be viewed negatively by our potential customers, result in cancellations of SOLO, eRoadster and Tofino reservations and could materially adversely affect our brand, image, business, prospects and operating results.

We rely upon independent third-party transportation providers for our vehicle shipments and are subject to increased shipping costs as well as the potential inability of our third-party transportation providers to deliver on a timely basis.

We currently rely upon independent third-party transportation providers for our vehicle shipments. Our utilization of these delivery services for shipments is subject to risks which may impact a shipping company's ability to provide delivery services that adequately meet our shipping needs, including risks related to employee strikes, labor and capacity constraints, and inclement weather. In addition, we are subject to increased shipping costs when fuel prices increase and due to other economic factors affecting supply and demand within the transportation industry. If we change the shipping companies we use, we could face logistical difficulties that could adversely affect deliveries, and we would incur costs and expend resources in connection with such change. Moreover, we may not be able to obtain terms as favorable as those received from our current independent third-party transportation providers which, in turn, would increase our costs and may impact our overall profitability.

The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Any reduction, elimination or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives that are offered to purchasers of EVs or persons installing home charging stations, the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of the electric vehicle, fiscal tightening or other reasons may result in the diminished competitiveness of the alternative fuel vehicle industry generally or our electric vehicles in particular. This could materially and adversely affect the growth of the alternative fuel automobile markets and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

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If we fail to manage future growth effectively, we may not be able to market and sell our vehicles successfully.

Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We plan to expand our operations in the near future in connection with the planned production of our vehicles. On March 16, 2021, the Company announced that it has selected Mesa, AZ, in the greater Phoenix area, for its U.S. based assembly facility and engineering technical center. The proposed facility in Mesa will support the Company’s strategic plan to meet anticipated demand for its flagship SOLO EV and other intended EVs. Our future operating results depend to a large extent on our ability to manage this expansion and growth successfully. Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include:

training new personnel;
forecasting production and revenue;
controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;
establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;
implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes;
addressing new markets; and
establishing international operations.

We intend to continue to hire a number of additional personnel, including design and manufacturing personnel and service technicians, for our electric vehicles. Competition for individuals with experience in designing, manufacturing and servicing electric vehicles is intense, and we may not be able to attract, assimilate, train or retain additional highly qualified personnel in the future. The failure to attract, integrate, train, motivate and retain these additional employees could seriously harm our business and prospects.

Our business may be adversely affected by labor and union activities.

Although none of our employees are currently represented by a labor union, it is common throughout the automobile industry generally for many employees at automobile companies to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. We have a Manufacturing Agreement with Zongshen to produce SOLO vehicles. Zongshen’s workforce is not currently unionized, though they may become so in the future or industrial stoppages could occur in the absence of a union. We also directly and indirectly depend upon other companies with unionized work forces, such as parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results. If a work stoppage occurs within our business, or that of Zongshen or our key suppliers, it could delay the manufacture and sale of our electric vehicles and have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results or financial condition. Additionally, if we expand our business to include full in-house manufacturing of our vehicles, our employees might join or form a labor union and we may be required to become a union signatory.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The automobile industry experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our vehicles do not perform as expected or malfunction resulting in personal injury or death. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given we have limited field experience of our vehicles. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our vehicles and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future vehicle candidates which would have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. We plan to maintain product liability insurance for all our vehicles on a claims-made basis, but any such insurance might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages either in excess of our coverage or outside of our coverage may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition. We may not be able to secure additional product liability insurance coverage on commercially acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed, particularly if we do face liability for our products and are forced to make a claim under our policy.

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Our patent applications may not result in issued patents, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from interfering with our commercialization of our products.

The registration and enforcement of patents involves complex legal and factual questions and the breadth and effectiveness of patented claims is uncertain. We cannot be certain that we are the first to file patent applications on these inventions, nor can we be certain that our pending patent applications will result in issued patents or that any of our issued patents will afford sufficient protection against someone creating competing products, or as a defensive portfolio against a competitor who claims that we are infringing its patents. In addition, patent applications filed in foreign countries are subject to laws, rules and procedures that differ from those of the United States, and thus we cannot be certain that foreign patent applications, if any, will result in issued patents in those foreign jurisdictions or that such patents can be effectively enforced, even if they relate to patents issued in the United States.

We may need to defend ourselves against patent or trademark infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and would cause us to incur substantial costs.

Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our vehicles or components, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time we may receive communications from third parties that allege our products are covered by their patents or trademarks or other intellectual property rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise assert their rights. If we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do things that include one or more of the following:

cease making, using, selling or offering to sell processes, goods or services that incorporate or use the third-party intellectual property;
pay substantial damages;
seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;
redesign our vehicles or other goods or services to avoid infringing the third-party intellectual property; or
establish and maintain alternative branding for our products and services.

In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the US federal courts may be limited because we are incorporated under the laws of the Province of British Columbia, a substantial portion of our assets are in Canada and some of our executive officers and directors reside outside the United States.

We are organized pursuant to the laws of the Province of British Columbia under the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia), as amended (the “Business Corporations Act”). Two of our four officers, our auditor and all but four of our directors reside outside the United States. In addition, a substantial portion of their assets and our assets are located outside of the United States. As a result, you may have difficulty serving legal process within the United States upon us or any of these persons. You may also have difficulty enforcing, both in and outside of the United States, judgments you may obtain in U.S. courts against us or these persons in any action, including actions based upon the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal or state securities laws. Furthermore, there is substantial doubt as to the enforceability in Canada against us or against any of our directors, officers and any experts named in this Annual Report who are not residents of the United States, in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, of liabilities based solely upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. In addition, shareholders in British Columbia companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in U.S. federal courts. As a result, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us, our management, our directors or our major shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.

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Global economic conditions could materially adversely impact demand for our products and services.

Our operations and performance depend significantly on economic conditions. Uncertainty about global economic conditions could result in customers postponing purchases of our products and services in response to tighter credit, unemployment, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values and other macroeconomic factors, which could have a material negative effect on demand for our products and services and, accordingly, on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

We are vulnerable to a growing trade dispute between the United States and China

A growing trade dispute between the United States and China could increase the proposed sales price of our products or decrease our profits, if any. In June 2018, the previous U.S. administration imposed tariffs on $34 billion of Chinese exports, including a 25% duty on vehicles built in China and shipped to the United States. Following the imposition of these tariffs, China has imposed additional tariffs on U.S. goods manufactured in the United States and exported to China. Subsequently, the U.S. administration indicated that it may impose tariffs on up to $500 billion on goods manufactured in China and imported into the United States. These tariffs may escalate a nascent trade war between China and the United States. This trade conflict could affect our business because we intend to mass produce the SOLO in China and our intended principal market is the west coast of North America. If a trade war were to escalate, or if tariffs were imposed on any of our products, we could be forced to increase the proposed sales price of such products or reduce the margins, if any, on such products.

Recently, U.S. Customs and Border Protection ruled that the SOLO has a classification under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States that applies to passenger vehicles for less than 10 people with only electric motors. The total applicable duty for this classification was recently raised to 27.5% (2.5% is a “most-favored-nation” tariff for this classification and 25% derives from this classification being on the China 301 List 1). The suggested retail purchase price for our SOLO is U.S.$18,500. As the landscape for tariffs involving imports to the United States from the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC”) has been changing over the past year and may change again, we have not determined how to adjust the purchase price in the United States in response to the recent tariff increase.

On January 15, 2020, the United States and the PRC signed the Phase 1 Trade Agreement which came into force on February 14, 2020. Notwithstanding the coming into force of the Phase 1 Trade Agreement, the United States will maintain its tariffs on vehicles built in China and shipped to the United States.

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

The legal system in the PRC is based on written statutes. Unlike common law systems, it is a system in which legal cases have limited value as precedents. In the late 1970s the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly increased the protections afforded to various production services in the PRC. Zongshen, our manufacturing partner, is subject to various PRC laws and regulations generally applicable to companies in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties.

From time to time we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights or Zongshen may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to fulfill its obligations under the Manufacturing Agreement. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we or Zongshen may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

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Risks Related to Our Common Shares

Our executive officers and directors beneficially own approximately 9.8% of our common shares.

As of March 22, 2022, our executive officers and directors beneficially owned, in the aggregate, approximately 9.8% of our common shares, which includes shares that our executive officers and directors have the right to acquire pursuant to warrants, stock options, restricted stock units (“RSU”s) and deferred stock units (“DSU”s) which have vested. As a result, they will be able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors, amendments to our Articles and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of our Company or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these shareholders.

The continued sale of our equity securities will dilute the ownership percentage of our existing shareholders and may decrease the market price for our common shares.

Our Notice of Articles authorize the issuance of an unlimited number of common shares and the issuance of preferred shares. Our Board of Directors has the authority to issue additional shares of our capital stock to provide additional financing in the future and designate the rights of the preferred shares, which may include voting, dividend, distribution or other rights that are preferential to those held by the common shareholders. The issuance of any such common or preferred shares may result in a reduction of the book value or market price, if one exists at the time, of our outstanding common shares. Given our lack of revenues, we will likely have to issue additional equity securities to obtain working capital we require for the next 12 months. Our efforts to fund our intended business plans will therefore result in dilution to our existing shareholders. If we do issue any such additional common shares, such issuance also will cause a reduction in the proportionate ownership and voting power of all other shareholders. As a result of such dilution, if you acquire common shares your proportionate ownership interest and voting power could be decreased. Furthermore, any such issuances could result in a change of control or a reduction in the market price for our common shares.

Additionally, we had 11,274,981 stock options and 7,252,021 warrants outstanding as of March 22, 2022. The exercise price of some of these options and warrants is below our current market price, and you could purchase shares in the market at a price in excess of the exercise price of our outstanding warrants or options. If the holders of these options and warrants elect to exercise them, your ownership position will be diluted and the per share value of the common shares you have or acquire could be diluted as well. As a result, the market value of our common shares could significantly decrease as well.

Issuances of our preferred stock may adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common shares and reduce the value of our common shares.

Our Notice of Articles authorize the issuance of an unlimited number of shares of preferred stock. Our Board of Directors has the authority to create one or more series of preferred stock and, without shareholder approval, issue shares of preferred stock with rights superior to the rights of the holders of common shares. As a result, shares of preferred stock could be issued quickly and easily, adversely affecting the rights of holder of common shares and could be issued with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control or make removal of management more difficult. Although we currently have no plans to create any series of preferred stock and have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock, any creation and issuance of preferred stock in the future could adversely affect the rights of the holders of common shares and reduce the value of our common shares.

The market price of our common shares may be volatile and may fluctuate in a way that is disproportionate to our operating performance.

Our common shares began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) in August 2018, and before that it had been trading on the OTCQB starting in September 2017. The historical volume of trading has been low (within the past fiscal year, the fewest number of our shares that were traded on Nasdaq was 1,325,395 shares daily), and the share price has fluctuated significantly (since trading began on Nasdaq our closing price has been as low as U.S.$0.91 and as high as U.S.$10.81). The share price for our common shares could decline due to the impact of any of the following factors:

sales or potential sales of substantial amounts of our common shares;
announcements about us or about our competitors;

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litigation and other developments relating to our patents or other proprietary rights or those of our competitors;
conditions in the automobile industry;
governmental regulation and legislation;
variations in our anticipated or actual operating results;
change in securities analysts’ estimates of our performance, or our failure to meet analysts’ expectations;
change in general economic trends; and
investor perception of our industry or our prospects.

Many of these factors are beyond our control. The stock markets in general, and the market for automobile companies in particular, have historically experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. These broad market and industry factors could reduce the market price of our common shares regardless of our actual operating performance.

We do not intend to pay dividends and there will thus be fewer ways in which you are able to make a gain on your investment.

We have never paid any cash or stock dividends and we do not intend to pay any dividends for the foreseeable future. To the extent that we require additional funding currently not provided for in our financing plan, our funding sources may prohibit the payment of any dividends. Because we do not intend to declare dividends, any gain on your investment will need to result from an appreciation in the price of our common shares. There will therefore be fewer ways in which you are able to make a gain on your investment.

FINRA sales practice requirements may limit your ability to buy and sell our common shares, which could depress the price of our shares.

Financial Industry Regulation Authority (“FINRA”) rules require broker-dealers to have reasonable grounds for believing that an investment is suitable for a customer before recommending that investment to the customer. Prior to recommending speculative low-priced securities to their non-institutional customers, broker-dealers must make reasonable efforts to obtain information about the customer’s financial status, tax status and investment objectives, among other things. Under interpretations of these rules, FINRA believes that there is a high probability such speculative low-priced securities will not be suitable for at least some customers. Thus, FINRA requirements may make it more difficult for broker-dealers to recommend that their customers buy our common shares, which may limit your ability to buy and sell our common shares, have an adverse effect on the market for our common shares and, thereby, depress their market prices.

Our common shares have been thinly traded, and you may be unable to sell at or near ask prices or at all if you need to sell your common shares to raise money or otherwise desire to liquidate your shares.

From October 2017 until August 2018, our common shares were quoted on the OTCQB where they were “thinly-traded”, meaning that the number of persons interested in purchasing our common shares at or near bid prices at any given time was relatively small or non-existent. Since we listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market in August 2018, the volume of our common shares traded has increased, but that volume could decrease until we are thinly-traded again. That could occur due to a number of factors, including that we are relatively unknown to stock analysts, stock brokers, institutional investors and others in the investment community that generate or influence sales volume, and that even if we came to the attention of such persons, they tend to be risk-averse and might be reluctant to follow an unproven company such as ours or purchase or recommend the purchase of our common shares until such time as we became more seasoned. As a consequence, there may be periods of several days or more when trading activity in our common shares is minimal or non-existent, as compared to a seasoned issuer which has a large and steady volume of trading activity that will generally support continuous sales without an adverse effect on share price. Broad or active public trading market for our common shares may not develop or be sustained.

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Volatility in our common shares or warrant price may subject us to securities litigation.

The market for our common shares may have, when compared to seasoned issuers, significant price volatility, and we expect that our share or warrant prices may continue to be more volatile than that of a seasoned issuer for the indefinite future. In the past, plaintiffs have often initiated securities class action litigation against a company following periods of volatility in the market price of its securities. We may, in the future, be the target of similar litigation. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and liabilities and could divert management’s attention and resources.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act. As such, we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies. For example:

we are not required to provide as many Exchange Act reports, or as frequently, as a domestic public company;
for interim reporting we are permitted to comply solely with our home country requirements, which are less rigorous than the rules that apply to domestic public companies;
we are not required to provide the same level of disclosure on certain issues, such as executive compensation;
we are exempt from provisions of Regulation FD aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information;
we are not required to comply with the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; and
we are not required to comply with Section 16 of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and establishing insider liability for profits realized from any “short-swing” trading transaction.

Our shareholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important and are accustomed to receive from U.S. reporting companies.

As an “emerging growth company” under applicable law, we will be subject to lessened disclosure requirements. Such reduced disclosure may make our common shares less attractive to investors.

For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the JOBS Act, we will elect to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” and including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Because of these lessened regulatory requirements, our shareholders would be left without information or rights available to shareholders of more mature companies. If some investors find our common shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for such securities and their market prices may be more volatile.

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We incur significant costs as a result of being a public company, which costs will grow after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”

We incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses as a public company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Capital Market, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We are an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the JOBS Act, and will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of : (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following February 10, 2022, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least U.S.$1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the prior June 30th; and (2) the date on which we have issued more than U.S.$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.

Compliance with these rules and regulations increases our legal and financial compliance costs and makes some corporate activities more time-consuming and costlier. After we are no longer an emerging growth company, we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a public company we have been required to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We have incurred additional costs in obtaining director and officer liability insurance. In addition, we incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

Summary

We were incorporated on February 16, 2015, under the laws of the Province of British Columbia, Canada, and our principal activity is the development and manufacturing of electric vehicles (each, an EV).

Our head office is located at, and our principal address is, 8057 North Fraser Way, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, V5J 5M8.

Additional information related us is available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com and on our website at www.electrameccanica.com. We do not incorporate the contents of our website or of sedar.com into this Annual Report. Information on our website does not constitute part of this Annual Report.

Our registered and records office is located at Suite 1500, 1055 West Georgia Street, P.O. Box 11117, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6E 4N7.

A. History and development of the Company

We are a development-stage electric vehicle, or EV, manufacturing company which was incorporated on February 16, 2015 under the laws of British Columbia, Canada.

We have five subsidiaries: InterMeccanica, a British Columbia, Canada, corporation; EMV Automotive USA Inc., a Nevada corporation; SOLO EV LLC, a Michigan limited liability company; ElectraMeccanica USA LLC, an Arizona limited liability company; and EMV Automotive Technology (Chongqing) Ltd., a PRC corporation.

We currently have 17 existing retail locations located in the States of California, Arizona, Colorado, Oregon and Washington.

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B. Business Overview

General

We are a development-stage electric vehicle, or EV, designer and manufacturer company located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Our initial product line targets urban commuters, commercial fleets/deliveries and shared mobility seeking to commute in an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

Our first flagship EV is the SOLO, a single seat vehicle, of which we have built 64 prototype vehicles in-house as of December 31, 2021 and 60 pre-production vehicles with our manufacturing partner, Zongshen. We have used some of these pre-mass production vehicles as prototypes and for certification purposes, have delivered some to customers and have used others as test drive models in our showroom. We believe our schedule to mass produce EVs, combined with our subsidiary, InterMeccanica’s, 62-year history of automotive design, manufacturing and deliveries of motor vehicles to customers, significantly differentiates us from other early and development stage EV companies.

We launched commercial production of our SOLO on August 26, 2020. For the quarter ended December 31, 2021, we have produced 109 SOLOs for a total of 291 SOLOs since we launched production. We currently have 20 retail stores located in the States of California, Arizona, Oregon, Washington and Colorado. Deliveries will be made to key markets along the U.S. west coast as the Company continues to expand. The Company commenced deliveries on October 4, 2021, to initial customers and commercial fleets.

On September 16, 2020, we announced plans to produce an alternative “cargo and fleet” version of our flagship SOLO EV and debuted the SOLO alternative version at the ACT Expo in Long Beach on August 31, 2021. The Company recently announced its plan to start delivering the SOLO Cargo EV early in the third quarter of 2022. The starting suggested retail price of the SOLO Cargo is U.S.$24,500 with 11.8 cubic feet of storage.

To support our production, in October of 2017 we entered into a Manufacturing Agreement with Zongshen, acting through its wholly-owned subsidiary. Zongshen is an affiliate of Zongshen Power Machinery Co., Ltd., a large-scale scientific and technical enterprise which designs, develops, manufactures and sells a diverse range of motorcycles and motorcycle engines in China. We amended the Manufacturing Agreement in June of 2021 to update certain manufacturing and delivery provisions of the same. Zongshen has previously purchased common shares and exercised 1,400,000 warrants at CAD$4 to common shares from us, and beneficially owns approximately 2.4% of our common shares.

On March 16, 2021, we announced that we had selected Mesa, Arizona, as the site for the establishment of our U.S.-based assembly facility and engineering technical center. On May 12, 2021, we celebrated the official groundbreaking of the assembly facility and engineering technical center. The intended 235,000 square foot facility is to be located on 18 acres of land adjacent to the Phoenix-Mesa Gateway airport. The building is expected to include an assembly and manufacturing plant, a research center, 22,000 square feet of office space and 19,000 square feet of lab space. In this respect we plan to use an asset-light model in the facility’s development, whereby the building will be leased from the land owner and developer. The building is being designed by the architectural firm, Ware Malcomb, and is being engineered by Hunter Engineering with Willmeng Construction acting as the facility’s general contractor. When operational, it is expected that facility will have a production capacity of up to 20,000 vehicles per year and employ upwards of 200 to 500 people. The current completion date is targeted for summer of 2022.

We have another EV candidate in early design development stage, the “Tofino”, an all-electric, two-seater roadster.

We have devoted substantial resources to create an affordable EV which brings significant performance and value to our customers. To this end, the SOLO carries a manufacturer’s suggested retail price of $18,500, prior to any surcharge to cover tariffs (discussed below), and being powered by a high-performance electric rear drive motor which enables the SOLO to achieve:

a top speed of 80 mph and an attainable cruise speed of 68 mph resulting from its lightweight aerospace composite chassis;
acceleration from 0 mph to 60 mph in approximately ten seconds; and
a range of up to 100 miles generated from a lithium-ion battery system that requires up to four hours of charging time on a 220-volt charging station (up to eight hours from a 110-volt outlet) that utilizes approximately 17.3 kW/h.

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In addition, the SOLO contains a number of standard features found in higher price point vehicles, including:

LCD Digital Instrument Cluster;
Power Windows, Power Steering and Power Brakes;
AM/FM Stereo with Bluetooth/ USB;
Rear view backup camera;
Air conditioning;
Heated seat;
Heater and defogger; and
Keyless remote entry.

Unique to Canada, the SOLO is under the three-wheeled vehicle category and is subject to the safety standards listed in Schedule III of the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations. See “Government Regulation” herein.

For sale into the United States, we and our vehicles must meet the applicable provisions of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (“CFR”) Title 49 —Transportation. Since the U.S. regulations do not have a specific class for three-wheeled “autocycles”, the SOLO falls under the definition of a motorcycle pursuant to Sec. 571.3 of 49 CFR Part 571. However, currently a motorcycle license is not required to drive them in all but the States of Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina and New York (New York will no longer require a Helmet as of April 20, 2022); Motorcycle helmets must be worn while operating in the States of Alaska (when operating without a motorcycle license or endorsement), Nebraska, North Carolina and Oregon. Helmets are also required if the driver is under 18 years old in the States of Alaska, Colorado, Indiana, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire and New Mexico. See “Government Regulation” herein.

Potential Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic

In December 2019, a strain of novel coronavirus (now commonly known as COVID-19) was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 has since spread rapidly throughout many countries, and, on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic. In an effort to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19, many countries, including the United States, Canada and China, have imposed unprecedented restrictions on travel, and there have been business closures and a substantial reduction in economic activity in countries that have had significant outbreaks of COVID-19.

Our manufacturing partner, Zongshen, reports that its operations have not been materially affected at this point, and with our partner Zongshen we have begun producing the SOLO for targeted deliveries to customers during 2021. However, significant uncertainty remains as to the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our and Zongshen’s operations, and on the global economy as a whole. Government-imposed restrictions on travel and other “social-distancing” measures, such as restrictions on assemblies of groups of persons, have potential to disrupt supply chains for parts and sales channels for our products, and may result in labor shortages.

It is currently not possible to predict how long the pandemic will last or the time that it will take for economic activity to return to prior levels. We will continue to monitor the COVID-19 situation closely, and intend to follow health and safety guidelines as they evolve.

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Potential Impact of Tariffs

A growing trade dispute between the United States and China could increase the proposed sales price of our products or decrease our profits, if any. In June 2018, the previous U.S. administration imposed tariffs on $34 billion of Chinese exports, including a 25% duty on vehicles built in China and shipped to the United States. Following the imposition of these tariffs, China has imposed additional tariffs on U.S. goods manufactured in the United States and exported to China. Subsequently, the U.S. administration indicated that it may impose tariffs on up to $500 billion of goods manufactured in China and imported into the United States. These tariffs may escalate a nascent trade war between China and the United States. This trade conflict could affect our business because we intend to mass produce the SOLO in China and our intended principal market is the west coast of North America. If a trade war were to escalate or if tariffs were imposed on any of our products, we could be forced to increase the proposed sales price of such products or reduce the margins, if any, on such products.

Recently, U.S. Customs and Border Protection ruled that the SOLO has a classification under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States that applies to passenger vehicles for less than 10 people with only electric motors. The total applicable duty for this classification was recently raised to 27.5% (2.5% is a “most-favored-nation” tariff for this classification and 25% derives from this classification being on the China 301 List 1). As indicated above, the current base purchase price for our SOLO is approximately U.S.$18,500. As the landscape for tariffs involving imports to the United States from the PRC has been changing over the past year and may change again, we have not determined how to adjust the base purchase price in the United States in response to the recent tariff increase.

On January 15, 2020, the United States and the PRC signed an Economic and Trade Agreement commonly referred to as the Phase 1 Trade Agreement, which entered into force on February 14, 2020. Notwithstanding the coming into force of the Phase 1 Trade Agreement, the United States will maintain its tariffs on vehicles built in China and shipped to the United States.

Corporate Structure and Principal Executive Offices

We were incorporated on February 16, 2015 under the laws of British Columbia, Canada, and have a December 31st fiscal year end. As of March 22, 2022, we had 118,611,496 common shares outstanding.

Our principal executive offices are located at 8057 North Fraser Way, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, V5J 5M8. Our telephone number is (604) 428-7656. Our website address is www.electrameccanica.com. Information on our website does not constitute part of this Annual Report. Our registered and records office is located at Suite 1500, 1055 West Georgia Street, P.O. Box 11117, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6E 4N7.

We have five subsidiaries: InterMeccanica, a British Columbia, Canada, corporation; EMV Automotive USA Inc., a Nevada corporation; SOLO EV LLC, a Michigan limited liability company; ElectraMeccanica USA LLC, an Arizona limited liability company; and EMV Automotive Technology (Chongqing) Ltd., a PRC corporation.

Strategy

Our near-term goal is to commence and expand sales of the SOLO while continuing to develop our other EVs. We intend to achieve this goal by:

Began commercial production of the SOLO: Zongshen, our manufacturing partner, began production of the SOLO on August 26, 2020, with deliveries to customers that commenced on October 4, 2021, and have delivered 61 vehicles as at December 31, 2021;
Increasing orders for our EVs: We have an online reservation system which allows a potential customer to reserve a SOLO by paying a refundable $250 deposit, a Tofino by paying a refundable $1,000 deposit and an e-Roadster by paying a refundable $1,000 deposit. Once reserved, the potential customer is allocated a reservation number and, although we cannot guarantee that such pre-orders will become binding and result in sales, we intend to fulfill the reservations as the respective vehicles are produced. We maintain certain refundable deposits from various individuals for SOLOs, Tofinos and e-Roadsters;
Having sales and services supported by local corporate stores: We will monitor all vehicles in real time via telematics which provides early warning of potential maintenance issues; and

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Expanding our product offering: In parallel with the production and sale of the SOLO, we have started to take orders of the SOLO Cargo with anticipated deliveries during third quarter of 2022 with a starting suggested retail price of $24,500. We aim to continue the development of our other proposed products, including the Tofino and e-Roadster, two-seater sports cars, in the expected price range of $50,000 to $60,000 for the Tofino and starting at $150,000 for the e-Roadster.

We have achieved our pre-order book through an online “direct sales to customers and corporate sales” platform, as well as a showroom at our headquarters in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Additionally, we have service and distribution centers in Studio City, California, and in Mesa, Arizona. We plan on expanding the corporate retail stores model and will be opening retail stores in key urban areas. We currently have 17 retail stores located in the States of California, Arizona, Oregon, Washington and Colorado. Deliveries will be made to key markets along the U.S. west coast as the Company continues to expand. The Company commenced deliveries to initial customers on October 4, 2021.

We will continue to identify other retail targets in additional regions. The establishment of stores will depend on regional demand, available candidates and local regulations. Our vehicles will initially be available directly from us. We plan to only establish and operate corporate stores in those states in the United States that do not restrict or prohibit certain retail sales models by vehicle manufacturers.

Marketing and Sales Plan

We recognize that marketing efforts must be focused on customer education and establishing brand presence and visibility which is expected to allow our vehicles to gain traction and subsequently gain increases in orders. Our marketing and promotional efforts emphasize the SOLO’s image as an efficient, clean and attainable EV for the masses to commute on a daily basis, for commercial fleets/deliveries and for shared mobility.

A key point to the marketing plan is to target metropolitan areas with high population density, expensive real estate, high commuter traffic load and pollution levels which are becoming an enormous concern. Accordingly, our management has identified California, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Colorado and Southern Florida as areas with cities that fit the aforementioned criteria. We are currently delivering vehicles in the State of California.

We plan to develop a marketing strategy that will generate interest and media buzz based on the SOLO’s selling points. Key aspects of our marketing plan include:

Digital marketing: Organic engagement and paid digital marketing media with engaging posts aimed to educate the public about EVs and develop interest in our SOLO;
Earned media: We have already received press coverage from several traditional media sources and expect these features and news stories to continue as we embark on our commercial launch;
Investor Relations/Press Releases: Our in-house investor relations team will provide media releases/kits for updates and news on our progress;
Industry shows and events: Promotional merchandise giveaways are expected to enhance and further solidify our branding in consumer minds. In October 2020 we hosted the “First Look & Drive” media event in Santa Monica, California, and during March 2021 we showcased the SOLO at Barrett Jackson in Scottsdale, Arizona. In August/September 2021 we showcased the SOLO and SOLO Cargo version at the ACT Expo in Long Beach, California. Computer stations and payment processing software will be readily on hand at such events to accept SOLO reservations. In November of 2021 we showcased SOLO O2 and SOLO Crassodon at SEMA in Las Vegas, Nevada. Also in November we showcased the entire SOLO line up at the LA Autoshow along with test drives; and
First-hand experience: Test-drives and/or public viewings are available at our existing stores in the Vancouver downtown core, Arizona, California, Oregon and soon in Colorado and Washington.

We anticipate that our marketing strategy and tactics will evolve over time as our SOLO gains momentum and we identify appropriate channels and media that align with our long-term objectives. In all of our efforts we plan to focus on the features that differentiate our SOLO from the existing EVs in the market.

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SOLO

Graphic

We created the SOLO’s first prototype in September of 2016. Since the completion of the prototype, our engineers and designers have devoted significant efforts to provide the SOLO with an appealing design and have engaged in proprietary research and development leading to a high-performance electric rear drive motor.

The SOLO has a suggested retail purchase price of U.S.$18,500 and features a lightweight chassis to allow for a top speed of 80/mph, an attainable cruise speed of 68/mph and is able to go from 0/mph to 60/mph in approximately 10 seconds. Our SOLO features a lithium ion battery system that requires only up to four hours of charging time on a 220-volt charging station or up to eight hours from a 110-volt outlet. The lithium battery system utilizes approximately 17.3 kW/h for up to 100 miles in range. We offer a limited warranty for three years or 36,000 miles for the SOLO and limited warranty up to five years or 45,000 miles for the battery. Standard equipment in the SOLO includes, but is not limited to the following:

LCD Digital Instrument Cluster;
Power Windows, Power Steering and Power Brakes;
AM/FM Stereo with Bluetooth/ USB;
Rear view backup camera;
Air conditioning;
Heated seat;
Heater and defogger; and
Keyless remote entry.

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SOLO Cargo

A picture containing car, red, road, transport

Description automatically generated

In September 2020 we announced our plans to produce an alternative “utility and fleet” version of our flagship SOLO EV. On February 2, 2022, the Company announced its plan to start delivering the SOLO Cargo EV in the third quarter of 2022. This modified vehicle is being developed based on direct input from potential commercial and fleet partners and will be equipped with a stylish and functional cargo “cap”, offering additional capacity and versatility to suit a variety of different, single-occupant commercial and utility fleet applications. Our engineers and designers have devoted efforts to provide the SOLO Cargo with an appealing design and have engaged in proprietary research and development leading to a high-performance electric rear drive motor.

The SOLO Cargo has the similar features as the SOLO; however, we anticipate that there will be some additional fleet technology and features that would be able to add to the SOLO Cargo. The SOLO Cargo EV has a range of up to 100 miles and a top speed of 80 mph, making it safe for highway use. It also features front and rear crumple zones, side impact protection, a Kevlar reinforced safety hoop, torque-limiting control as well as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning and a configurable entertainment system.

SOLO Cargo EV dimensions have been expanded to include cargo space for a total of 11.8 cubic feet of storage space – as compared to 5 cubic feet of storage in the standard SOLO EV. The uniquely styled vehicle is 53” tall and approximately 123” long, and the rear cargo dimensions are 37.5” long x 34” wide x 16” high. The Cargo version contains a variety of features for commercial applications, including a bulkhead which separates the driver from the cargo contents, an adjustable/folding interior floor panel, cargo netting, lighting in the rear cargo space and a telematics enabled device. For added safety, the roof is reinforced with a Kevlar band.

The SOLO Cargo EV is now available for order with your ElectraMeccanica fleet representative by phone or email – all at a starting MRSP of U.S.$24,500. A dedicated sales manager is available to walk customers through the purchasing and outfitting process. A post-sale account manager is provided for aftersales service and warranty support including in-shop service trainings, parts, and allocated resources to ensure limited downtime for fleets.

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eRoadster

Graphic

We currently have a prototype eRoadster that is currently produced. The Company is currently sourcing supply for the production model. This eRoadster will be manufactured out of our Mesa Facility. Further details will be provided as more information becomes available.

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The Tofino

A red sports car on a road

Description automatically generated with medium confidence

We announced on March 28, 2017, at the Vancouver International Auto Show, that we intended to build the Tofino; an all-electric, two-seater roadster. We are designing the Tofino to be equipped with a high-performance, all-electric motor. The Tofino is still in early design stage development.

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials

We continue to source duplicate suppliers for all of our components and, in particular, we are currently sourcing our lithium batteries from Panasonic, Samsung and LT Chem. Lithium is subject to commodity price volatility which is not under our control and could have a significant impact on the price of our lithium batteries.

At present we are subject to the supply of our chassis from one supplier for the production of the SOLO. We are exploring additional suppliers of the chassis to mitigate the risk of depending on only one supplier.

Patents and Licenses

We have filed patent and design applications for inventions and designs that our legal counsel deems necessary to protect our products. We do not rely on any licenses from third-party vendors at this time.

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Our success depends, at least in part, on our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this we rely on a combination of patent and design applications and registrations, trade secrets, including know-how, employee and third-party non-disclosure agreements, copyright, trademarks and other contractual rights to establish and protect our proprietary rights in our technology and other intellectual property. As at March22. 2022, we have 14 issued design registrations, 17 pending invention patent applications and four granted invention patent in specific countries which we consider core to our business in a broad range of areas related to the design of the SOLO and its powertrain. Additionally, and pursuant to our Manufacturing Agreement with Zongshen, legal title has been transferred for 24 granted Chinese design registrations from Chongqing Zongshen Institute of Innovation and Technology Co., Ltd. to EMV Automotive Technology (Chongqing) Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary. We intend to continue to file additional patent and design applications with respect to our technology and designs. Examination is proceeding with our pending patent applications, but it is not yet clear whether these applications will result in the issuance of patents or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims such that, even if patents are granted, they might not provide us with adequate protection.

Trademarks

We have recently revised our Brand Guidelines, removing the space between “ELECTRA” and “MECCANICA”, such that, with the next generation SOLO vehicle we will operate under the trademark “ELECTRAMECCANICA SOLO”. Until ELECTRAMECCANICA SOLO is used in commerce, we will continue to maintain the mark “ELECTRA MECCANICA SOLO” which is registered in Canada, China, the European Union and Japan, and which is the subject of pending applications in the United States. We have also registered the trademark “ELECTRA MECCANICA TOFINO” in Canada, Japan, the European Union and China, and we have applied to register the trademark in the United States.

We have additional trademark registrations and pending applications for trademarks (other than those noted above) in Canada, China, Japan, the United States and the European Union. As of March 22, 2022, there are two pending applications in China and eleven pending applications in the United States. We own three federal registrations in the United States. We also own six registrations in each of the European Union and Japan and we own 43 registrations in China. There is also an additional registration in each of the European Union, China and Japan for the trademark “MONSTERRA”.

This Annual Report contains references to our trademarks and service marks and to those belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent possible under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

Industry Overview

Investment in clean technology has been trending upwards for several years as nations, governments and societies overall become more aware of the damaging effects that pollution and greenhouse gas emissions have on the environment. In an attempt to prevent and/or slow-down these damaging effects and create a more sustainable environment, consumers have taken to exploring and purchasing clean technology while nations and government agencies have undertaken programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, contribute funding into research and development in clean technology and offer incentives/rebates for clean technology investments by businesses and consumers. EVs are a growing segment of this clean technology movement.

EV is a broad term for vehicles that do not solely operate on gas or diesel. Within this alternative vehicle group there are sub-categories of alternative vehicles that utilize different innovative technologies such as: (i) battery electric vehicles (“BEV”s); (ii) fuel-cell electric vehicles (“FCV”s) and (iii) plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (“PHEV”s).

BEVs draw on power from battery management systems to power electric motors instead of from an internal combustion engine, a fuel cell or a fuel tank. The Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model S and our vehicles are BEVs.

FCVs typically utilize a hydrogen fuel cell that, along with oxygen from the air, converts chemical energy into electricity which powers the vehicle’s motor. Emissions from FCVs are water and heat, hence making FCVs true zero-emission vehicles. The Honda Clarity, Hyundai Tucson and Toyota Mirai are examples of FCVs.

PHEVs are the hybrid vehicles that have both an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. A PHEV can alternate between using electricity while in its all-electric range and relying on its gas-powered engine. The Chevrolet Volt and the Toyota Prius are examples of PHEVs.

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The popularity of EVs have also been met with difficulties in charging convenience. There are far more gas stations available than public EV charging stations. The convenience and availability of public EV charging stations may prove to be an obstacle of mass adoption of EVs.

Consumers may be afraid that their EVs may run out of charge while they are out on the road and this fear is recognized by the public and has been popularized with the term “range anxiety”. Despite this fear, the distance travelled by most urban commuters is a lot lower than the typical range of an EV. Data from Statistics Canada’s National Household Survey in 2011 reported the average Canadian takes 25 minutes to commute to work.

There currently exists different categories of charging stations depending on the voltage they provide. EV owners can often charge at home on a regular 110-volt outlet which may take between 10 hours to 20 hours depending on the model and make of the EV. This type of outlet and charging is termed level 1 charging. Level 2 charging means the voltage at the charging station is typically around 240 volts and this type of outlet is usually available at public charging stations, shopping malls and big box retailer parking lots, and even located in certain residential hi-rises. Charging at a level 2 station typically cuts down the level 1 charge time in half and may require a small fee for the service which may vary depending on the provider and the location.

Global EV Market

EVs have been around for over 100 years but have only recently gained widespread adoption and public interest due to open discussions of greenhouse gas emission levels, government and international policies on climate change and pollution, increased literature on EVs, fluctuating fuel costs and improved battery management systems and EV range. In addition, the market for electric vehicles has experienced significant growth in recent years due to consumer demand for vehicles that achieve greater fuel efficiency and lower environmental emissions without sacrificing performance.

Traditional automotive manufacturers have entered into the EV market to capitalize on its growth. The majority of growth in the EV market has been led by the following EV models: the Nissan Leaf, the Honda Clarity (PHEV), the Toyota Prius (PHEV), the Tesla Model 3 and the Mitsubishi Outlander (PHEV). Four of the five models above are made by traditional automotive manufacturers, and the fifth is made by Tesla Motors, one of several manufacturers that are solely devoted to the manufacturing of EVs.

Oil was the predominant energy source in the transport sector, providing 92% of final energy over the past decade, down only two percentage points from 1973. Increased demand for transport for people and goods called for more oil use, which was accompanied by increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Today, the transport sector is responsible for nearly one-quarter of global energy-related direct CO2 emissions and is a significant contributor to air pollution. Global and local objectives and commitments to improve climate and air quality underscore that the transport sector has a critical role to play.

Even with the ongoing dominance of oil products in transport, these drivers drove rapid change. Over the last decade momentum accelerated to deploy a range of powertrains and alternative fuels. The 2010s were ground breaking for the introduction of electric vehicles and to shape a promising nascent market. Electrification is a key technological strategy to reduce air pollution in densely populated areas and a promising option to contribute to countries’ energy diversification and greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions reduction objectives. Electric vehicle benefits include zero tailpipe emissions, better efficiency than internal combustion engine vehicles and large potential for GHG emissions reduction when coupled with a low-carbon electricity sector.

Hitting the commercial market in the first-half of the decade, the sales of electric vehicles have soared over the last five years. The top sellers were both fast growing emblematic companies such as Tesla as well as established automakers such as Nissan (Leaf model) and Renault (Zoe model). Notably, a rapidly developing industry in the PRC had the biggest impact on electric vehicle sales.

Only about 17,000 electric vehicles were on the world’s roads in 2010. Just five countries could count more than 1,000 on their roads: China, Japan, Norway, United Kingdom and the United States. The electric vehicle market was in its infancy and made up of early adopters.

Yet by 2020 there were over 10 million electric vehicles on the world’s roads. Nine countries had more than 100,000 electric vehicles on the road. The global stock remains concentrated in China, Europe and the United States. At least 20 countries reached market shares above 1% in 2020.

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Global Electric Vehicle Stock by Region and Mode, 2010-2020

Graphic

Source:

Global EV Outlook 2021.

Note:

PHEV = plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. BEV = battery electric vehicle. “Other” includes Australia, Brazil, Chile, India, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and Thailand. “Europe” includes the EU27, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

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Electric Vehicle Registrations and Market Share in Selected Countries and Regions, 2015-2020

Graphic

Source:

Global EV Outlook 2021.

Electric vehicle sales increased 40% in 2020 from 2019 with a record three million vehicles sold. While the EV market was breaking records, overall vehicle sales were down 16%, largely attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. With over 10 million electric vehicle on the road, EVs now account for ~1% of the global vehicle stock. Early data for 2021 is indicating rapid growth once again in major markets.

Prospects for Electric Mobility Deployment to 2030

Below is an outlook for electrification of road transport to 2030. It considers deployment of electric vehicles and charging infrastructure, battery capacity and related materials demand as well as the implications for energy demand and GHG emissions.

The projections in this analysis rely on the gross domestic product (“GDP”) assumptions in the World Energy Outlook 2020 (IEA, 2020) as at the time of writing there was not yet an updated GDP projection. Given the economic disruption related to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the assumption in this outlook implies an economic recovery following the pandemic that leads to a similar level of economic activity over the next few years as was previously estimated, which means a relatively speedy global recovery. The analysis also assumes that policy targets that were in place by end-2020 for transport in general and EVs in particular remain in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic repercussions.

The global EV stock (excluding two/three-wheelers) expands from around 10 million in 2020 to more than 50 million by 2025 and over 140 million vehicles by 2030, corresponding to an annual average growth rate close to 30%. Thanks to this continuous increase in sales share, EVs are expected to account for about 7% of the global vehicle fleet by 2030. EV sales reach almost 14 million in 2025 and 25 million vehicles in 2030, representing, respectively, 10% and 16% of all road vehicle sales.

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Global EV Stock by Mode in the Stated Policies Scenario, 2020-2030

Graphic

Source:

Global EV Outlook 2021.

Note:

PLDVs = passenger light-duty vehicles; BEV = battery electric vehicle; LCVs = light-commercial vehicles; PHEV = plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The figure does not include electric two/three-wheelers. For reference, total road EV stock (excluding two/three-wheelers) in 2030 is 2 billion in the Stated Policies Scenario and 1.9 billion in the Sustainable Development Scenario. Projected EV stock data by region can be interactively explored via the Global EV Data Explorer.

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Global EV Sales by Scenario, 2020-2030

Graphic

Source:

Global EV Outlook 2021.

Note:

PHEV = plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. EV sales share = share of EVs (BEV+PHEV) out of total vehicles sales. PHEV share in EVs = share of PHEV sales out of EV (BEV+PHEV) sales. The regional breakdown of these figures by vehicle type can be interactively explored via the IEA’s Global EV Data Explorer.

By 2030 the global EV stock (excluding two/three-wheelers) is about 140 million with sales of 25 million in the Stated Policies Scenario, while the more ambitions Sustainable Development Scenario sees about 245 million EV stock with sales of more than 45 million.

North American EV Market

Our primary market is North America, with a focus on the west coast of the United States – especially California. As of December 2021, cumulative registrations of plug-in electric passenger vehicles totaled 635,602 units, making California the leading plug-in market in the U.S. While the state represents about 10% of nationwide new vehicle sales, California has accounted for almost half of cumulative plug-in sales in the American market. Plug-in electric vehicles represented about 0.5% of the passenger fleet on California’s roads by September 2015.

Until December 2014, California not only had more plug-in electric vehicles than any other American state but also more than any other country in the world. In 2015 only two countries, Norway (22.4%) and the Netherlands (9.7%), achieved a higher plug-in market share than California. Sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the state passed the 200,000 unit milestone in March 2016. By November 2016, with about 250,000 plug-in vehicles sold in the state since 2010, China was the only country market that exceeded California in cumulative plug-in electric vehicle sales. Cumulative plug-in vehicle registrations achieved the 500,000 unit milestone by the end of November 2018.

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Graphic

Source:

Wikipedia.

Annual registrations of plug-in electric vehicles in California increased from 6,964 units in 2011 to 20,093 in 2012, and reached 42,545 units in 2013. In 2014, California’s plug-in car market share reached 3.2% of total new car sales in the state, up from 2.5% in 2013, while the national plug-in market share in 2014 was 0.71%. The state’s plug-in market share fell to 3.1% in 2015, with the plug-in hybrid segment dropping from 1.6% in 2014 to 1.4%, while the all-electric segment increased to 1.7% from 1.6% in 2014. Still, California’s market share was 4.7 times higher than the U.S. market (0.66%), and registrations of plug-in electric cars in the state in 2015 represented 54.5% of total plug-in car sales in the U.S. that year.

California’s plug-in car market share rose to 3.5% of new car sales in 2016, while the U.S. take-rate was 0.90%. In 2017, California’s plug-in market share reached 4.8%, while the national share was 1.13%. Also, in 2017, the state’s plug-in segment market share surpassed the take-rate of conventional hybrids (4.6%) for the first time. The plug-in market share rose to 7.8% in 2018, again ahead of conventional hybrids (4.2%), with the all-electric segment reaching for the first time a higher share than conventional hybrids.

Currently, with the latest numbers from 2020, the plug-in market share has risen to a record 8.1% and the conventional hybrid has reached a six year high of 6.9%. In comparison to the 8.1% market share for plug-in electric vehicles in California, they only make up for 2% of the market-share nationally. Much of the impeded growth in terms of overall vehicle sales has been an effect of the COVID-19 pandemic with chip shortages and supply chain issues.

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The following table presents annual registrations and market share of new car sales for all-electric and plug-in hybrids sold in California between 2011 and 2020.

Annual New Plug-in Electric Passenger Car Registrations and
Market Share in California
by Type of Plug-in (2010 - 2020)

California[1][75][76]

U.S.[71][6][86][81][74][87][88][89][90][91]

CA share

Ratio

BEV

PHEV

Total

PEV

Total 

PEV 

of U.S.

CA/US

market

Plug-in 

market 

  PEV

market 

 PEV

 market

PEV

  market 

Year

    

All-electric

    

  share(1)

    

hybrid

    

 share(1)

    

  California

    

 share(1)

    

  sales

    

 share(2)

    

sales(3)

    

 shares

2010

300

0.02

%  

97

0.006

%  

397

0.03

%  

345

N/A

100

%  

2011

 

5,302

 

0.4

%  

1,662

 

0.1

%  

6,964

 

0.5

%  

17,821

 

0.14

%  

39.1

%  

3.57

2012

 

5,990

 

0.4

%  

14,103

 

0.9

%  

20,093

 

1.3

%  

53,392

 

0.37

%  

37.6

%  

3.51

2013

 

21,912

 

1.3

%  

20,633

 

1.2

%  

42,545

 

2.5

%  

96,602

 

0.62

%  

44.0

%  

4.03

2014

 

29,536

 

1.6

%  

29,949

 

1.6

%  

59,485

 

3.2

%  

123,347

 

0.71

%  

48.2

%  

4.27

2015

 

34,477

 

1.7

%  

27,740

 

1.4

%  

62,217

 

3.1

%  

114,248

 

0.66

%  

54.5

%  

4.70

2016

 

41,932

 

1.9

%  

37,518

 

1.7

%  

79,450

 

3.6

%  

157,181

 

0.90

%  

50.5

%  

4.00

2017

 

59,388

 

2.7

%  

48,391

 

2.2

%  

107,779

 

4.9

%  

194,479

 

1.13

%  

55.4

%  

4.32

2018

 

99,121

 

4.6

%  

64,644

 

3.0

%  

163,765

 

7.6

%  

361,307

 

2.10

%  

45.3

%  

3.62

2019

 

106,752

 

5.1

%  

52,329

 

2.5

%  

159,081

 

7.6

%  

329,528

 

1.98

%  

48.3

%  

3.83

2020

101,628

6.2

%  

31,114

1.9

%  

132,742

8.1

%  

297,939

2.03

%  

44.6

%  

3.98

Total

 

506,338

 

N/A

 

328,180

 

N/A

 

834,518

 

N/A

 

1,746,189

 

N/A

 

47.8

%  

N/A

Notes: (1) Market share of total new car registrations in California. (2) U.S. market share of total nationwide sales. (3) Californai’s market share of total nationwide registrations.

Source:

Wikipedia.

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Chart, bar chart

Description automatically generated

Source:

Wikipedia.

Data Sources:

International Energy Agency, Wikipedia, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers; National Automobile Dealers Association, California Energy Commission

Chart:

International Energy Agency, Wikipedia.

Fleet and Urban Driving market

We designed the SOLO with a view to redefining SOLO mobility for fleets in terms of vehicle share, deliveries and other mobility purposes; and for urban drivers who use a personal vehicle by cutting their commuting costs and reducing their environmental footprint. We believe that a substantial number of fleets and urban drivers will find the capacity of our EVs attractive in comparison to vehicles designed to carry more people. As vehicles designed to carry between four and eight people generally weigh substantially more than those that carry one or two people, they require more fuel or energy to operate. This significant mismatch between capacity and utilization leads to a significant excess of traffic and pollution and higher operating costs.

Although consumers may be afraid that their EVs may run out of charge while they are out on the road, the average U.S. one-way commute was only 39 minutes in 2019. The 100-mile range of our SOLO on a full charge would more than cover such a round-trip commute. [Data Source: United States KBB.]

Government Support

There has been a growing trend for governments as a matter of public policy to favor EVs. This has taken the form of initiatives aimed at improving transit, financial incentives for the purchase of EVs and financial incentives for the manufacture of EVs.

Initiatives to Improve Transit

Many localities try to reduce or regulate traffic, and particularly in places where there is high population density, chronic congestion, narrow roads and limited urban space. While these initiatives might be onerous to owners of traditional internal combustion engine vehicles, they often exempt or partially exclude EVs. These initiatives include various forms of congestion charging (which often exempt or provide discounts for EVs), priority lanes for high-occupancy vehicles and EVs, restrictions on new registrations of vehicles (excluding EVs) and subsidies for the installation of public charging stations for EVs.

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Going further than restrictions on vehicles fueled by petrol or diesel, several European countries and cities are formulating programs that would actually ban them. Norway’s Minister for the Environment has expressed an indication that they expect to implement a ban on the sale of vehicles that are not EVs by 2025. President Macron of France has expressed an indication that they will eliminate the sale of vehicles with internal combustion engines in France by 2040, and city hall in Paris has expressed an indication calling for a ban on all vehicles with traditional combustion engines from its streets by 2030. In the United Kingdom the government has announced a strategy that calls for sales of new gas and diesel vehicles and vans to end by 2030.

Purchaser Incentives

To promote the purchase of EVs, many state and local governments offer financial incentives to purchasers. These incentives can take the form of rebates, tax credits or the elimination or reduction of sales tax. Financial incentives available in selected North American jurisdictions for the purchase of EVs are set out in the following table:

British 

    

U.S. Federal

    

California

    

New York

    

Columbia

    

Ontario

    

Quebec

Tax credit

$

7,500

Rebate

 

 

$

2,500

 

$

2,000

CAD

$

5,000

CAD

$

14,000

CAD

$

8,000

Although these financial incentives may not continue at this level or at all, we believe that our SOLO would currently qualify for these tax credits and rebates in the States of California and Oregon. As of March 12, 2020, we have passed the CARB test for the State of California for the $750 rebate to be posted on the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project website and for a $2,500 rebate from the State of Oregon.

Several jurisdictions offer similar financial incentives for the purchase and installation of home charging stations for EVs.

Manufacturing Incentives

To promote the manufacture and development of EVs, many federal, state and local governments provide financial incentives to EV companies. These incentives can take the form of tax credits or grants. We did not receive any tax credits or grants in 2021. In 2020, we received $187,421 in a Scientific Research and Experimental Development (“SR&ED”) grant and $176,088 from the Innovation Assistance Program administered by the National Research Council. In 2019, we received $797,002 in a SR&ED grant. In 2018, we received $559,872 in a SR&ED grant and $6,659 from Canada’s Industrial Research Assistance Program (“IRAP”) administered by the National Research Council. In 2017, we received $149,273 from the IRAP and $85,907 in a SR&ED grant. We will continue to apply for grants where we believe warranted.

Competitive Factors

The EV market is evolving and companies within it must be able to adapt without jeopardizing the timing, quality or quantity of their products. Other manufacturers have entered the electric vehicle market and we expect additional competitors to enter this market within the next several years. As they do, we expect that we will experience significant competition. With respect to the SOLO, we face strong competition from established automobile manufacturers, including manufacturers of EVs such as the Tesla Model 3, the Chevrolet Bolt and the Nissan Leaf.

We believe the primary competitive factors in our market include but are not limited to: (i) technological innovation; (ii) product quality and safety; (iii) service options; (iv) product performance; (v) design and styling; (vi) brand perception; (vii) product price; and (viii) manufacturing efficiency.

Most of our current and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products. Virtually all of our competitors have more extensive customer bases and broader customer and industry relationships than we do. In addition, almost all of these companies have longer operating histories and greater name recognition than we do. Our competitors may be in a stronger position to respond quickly to new technologies and may be able to design, develop, market and sell their products more effectively.

Furthermore, certain large manufacturers offer financing and leasing options on their vehicles and also have the ability to market vehicles at a substantial discount, provided that the vehicles are financed through their affiliated financing company. We do not currently offer

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any form of direct financing on our vehicles. The lack of our direct financing options and the absence of customary vehicle discounts could put us at a competitive disadvantage.

We expect competition in our industry to intensify in the future in light of increased demand for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Our ability to successfully compete in our industry will be fundamental to our future success in the EV market and our market share. We might not be able to compete successfully in our market. If our competitors introduce new vehicles or services that compete with or surpass the quality, price or performance of our vehicles or services, we may be unable to satisfy existing customers or attract new customers at the prices and levels that would allow us to generate attractive rates of return on our investment. Increased competition could result in price reductions and revenue shortfalls, loss of customers and loss of market share, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We believe that our experience, production capability, product offering and management give us the ability to successfully operate in the EV market in a way that our competitors cannot. In particular, we believe that we have a number of competitive advantages:

Extensive in-house development capabilities: Our acquisition of InterMeccanica. in 2017 enables us to leverage InterMeccanica’s extensive 62 years of experience in vehicle design, manufacture, sales and customer support. InterMeccanica was founded in Turin, Italy, in 1959, as a speed parts provider and soon began producing in-house designed, complete vehicles like the Apollo GT, Italia, Murena, Indira and the Porsche 356 replica. InterMeccanica’s former owner, Henry Reisner, is our former Executive Vice-President and a former director. We have integrated InterMeccanica’s staff with the research and development team that we had prior to the acquisition to develop and enhance current and future model offerings;
In-house production capabilities: We have the ability to manufacture our own products on a non-commercial scale. As of December 31, 2021, we have produced 64 prototype SOLOs at our facilities in Vancouver, British Columbia, and 60 pre-production SOLOs with our manufacturing partner, Zongshen;
Commercial production of the SOLO commenced August 26, 2020: As at December 31, 2021, in accordance with our Manufacturing Agreement, Zongshen has produced a total of 60 pre-production vehicles and a total of 291 production vehicles and we have delivered a total of 61 vehicles as at December 31, 2021 to customers and commercial fleets since deliveries commenced on October 4, 2021;
Unique product offering: The SOLO’s manufacturer suggested retail price of U.S.$18,500, prior to any surcharge for tariffs, is far below the retail price of EVs offered by those who we consider to be our principal competitors; and we believe that the SOLO compares favorably against them; and
Management expertise: We have selected our management with an eye towards providing us with the business and technical expertise needed to be successful. They include Kevin Pavlov, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer, Bal Bhullar, our Chief Financial Officer, Kim Brink, our Chief Revenue Officer and Isaac Moss, our Chief Administrative Officer and Corporate Secretary. A number of these key employees and consultants have significant experience in the automobile manufacturing and technology industries. We have supplemented additional expertise by adding consultants and directors with corporate, accounting, legal and other strengths.

Government Regulation

As a vehicle manufacturer we are required to ensure that all vehicle production meets applicable safety and environmental standards. Issuance of the National Safety Mark (the “NSM”) by the Minister of Transport for Canada will be our authorization to manufacture vehicles in Canada for the Canadian market. Receipt of the NSM is contingent on us demonstrating that our vehicles are designed and manufactured to meet or exceed the applicable sections of the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Act (C.R.C. Chapter 1038) and that appropriate records are maintained. Unique to Canada, the SOLO is under the three-wheeled vehicle category and is subject to the safety standards listed in Schedule III of the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations (“CMVSR”), which can be found at (http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/C.R.C.,c.1038/section-sched3.html). For sales into the United States, we and our vehicles must meet the applicable parts of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (“CFR”) Title 49 — Transportation. This includes providing manufacture identification information (49 CFR Part 566), VIN-deciphering information (49 CFR Part 565), and certifying that our vehicles meet or exceeds the applicable sections of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (40 CFR Part 571) and Environmental Protection Agency noise emission standards (40 CFR 205). Since the U.S. regulations do not have a specific class for three-wheeled “autocycles”, the SOLO falls under the definition of a motorcycle pursuant to Sec. 571.3 of 49 CFR Part 571.

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We certified the SOLO for compliance with the applicable US requirements in the first quarter of 2018. Results from third party vehicle testing at a facility in Quebec, Canada, were used for this certification. We continue to use third party facilities for certification testing to ensure that any changes to the SOLO’s design continue to meet safety requirements. Compliance certification of the SOLO for Canada began in 2018.

Within the three-wheel vehicle classification in Canada, CMVSR Standard 305 sets out the regulation for prevention of injury to the occupant during and after a crash as related to the vehicle’s batteries. Under this standard, the security and integrity of electric drive system components and their isolation from the occupant are evaluated in the course of a frontal barrier crash test in accordance with Technical Standard Document No. 305. The equivalent U.S standard, FMVSS No. 305, is not applicable to the motorcycle category under the U.S. regulations.

We and our vehicles must meet the applicable parts of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 —Transportation. Since the U.S. regulations do not have a specific class for three-wheeled “autocycles”, the SOLO falls under the definition of a motorcycle pursuant to Sec. 571.3 of 49 CFR Part 571. For sale into the United States, we and our vehicles must meet the applicable provisions of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (“CFR”) Title 49 —Transportation. Since the U.S. regulations do not have a specific class for three-wheeled “autocycles”, the SOLO falls under the definition of a motorcycle pursuant to Sec. 571.3 of 49 CFR Part 571. However, currently a motorcycle license is not required to drive them in all but the States of Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina and New York (New York will no longer require a Helmet as of April 20, 2022). Motorcycle helmets must be worn while operating in the States of Alaska (when operating without a motorcycle license or endorsement), Nebraska, North Carolina and Oregon. Helmets are also required if the driver is under 18 years old in the States of Alaska, Colorado, Indiana, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire and New Mexico. See “Government Regulation” herein.

Research and Development

We have allocated substantial resources in developing our first vehicles. We expended $17,090,282 during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, and $8,666,247 during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, on research and development costs which include labor and materials.

InterMeccanica Business

In October 2017, we acquired InterMeccanica. In addition to the manufacturing and design experience that the acquisition provided us, we acquired a business of custom car manufacturing. InterMeccanica, throughout its operating history, has built approximately 2,500 vehicles. We intend to continue the legacy business of Intermeccanica, but we do not envision that it will be central to our operations, or represent a material portion of our revenue if we develop our business as planned, or account for a material portion of our expenses. At the end of December 2021, the Company stopped taking any further orders of the internal combustion engine roadsters.

Legal Proceedings

We are not involved in, or aware of, any legal or administrative proceedings contemplated or threatened by any governmental authority or any other party that is likely to have a material adverse effect on our business. As of the date of this Annual Report, no director, officer or affiliate is a party adverse to us in any legal proceeding or has an adverse interest to us in any legal proceeding.

C. Organizational structure

We have five subsidiaries: InterMeccanica, a British Columbia, Canada, corporation; EMV Automotive USA Inc., a Nevada corporation; SOLO EV LLC, a Michigan limited liability company; ElectraMeccanica USA LLC, an Arizona limited liability company; and EMV Automotive Technology (Chongqing) Ltd., a People’s Republic of China corporation. We own 100% of the voting and dispositive control over all of our subsidiaries.

Employees

As of March 22, 2022, we employed a total of 216 full-time and 11 part-time people. None of our employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.

The breakdown of full-time employees by main category of activity is as follows:

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Number of 

Activity

Employees

Engineering/R&D

126

Sales & Marketing

 

62

General & Administration

 

24

Executives

 

4

D. Property, plant and equipment

We operate from our head office located in Vancouver, Canada. We do not own any real property. We have leased the following properties:

Area 

 (In square

2021 Gross Monthly

Location

    

 feet)

    

 Rent

    

Lease Expiration Date

    

Use

Vancouver, BC

 

7,235

$

10,146

 

CAD

 

28-Feb-22

 

Head office

Burnaby, BC

 

13,936

$

15,097

 

CAD

28-Feb-26

 

Engineering center

New Westminster, BC, Canada

 

10,803

$

11,037

 

CAD

31-Jul-22

 

Development office

Studio City, CA, USA

 

9,600

$

30,766

 

USD

31-Mar-22

 

Service & distribution center

Los Angeles, CA, USA

 

298

$

5,607

 

USD

30-Sep-23

 

Retail kiosk

Tigard, OR, USA

 

150

$

10,450

 

USD

29-Feb-24

 

Retail kiosk

San Diego, CA, USA

 

180

$

7,950

 

USD

31-Jan-23

 

Retail kiosk

Brea, CA, USA

 

200

$

5,417

 

USD

2-May-22

 

Retail kiosk

Scottsdale, AZ, USA

 

200

$

8,232

 

USD

28-Feb-22

 

Retail kiosk

Glendale, AZ, USA

 

200

$

8,272

 

USD

14-Nov-22

 

Retail kiosk

Walnut Creek, CA, USA

 

200

$

8,350

 

USD

31-Mar-22

 

Retail kiosk

Santa Clara, CA, USA

 

300

$

7,725

 

USD

31-Dec-21

 

Retail kiosk

Tucson, AZ, USA

 

200

$

7,035

 

USD

28-Feb-22

 

Retail kiosk

Cerritos, CA, USA

200

$

7,500

USD

31-Mar-22

Retail kiosk

McLean, VA, USA

150

$

8,350

USD

28-Feb-22

Retail kiosk

Mission Viejo, CA, USA

150

$

5,833

USD

30-Apr-22

Retail kiosk

Torrance, CA, USA

200

$

5,833

USD

30-Apr-22

Retail kiosk

Happy Valley, OR, USA

200

$

3,125

USD

30-Apr-22

Retail kiosk

Lynnwood, WA, USA

150

$

3,125

USD

14-May-22

Retail kiosk

Lone Tree, CO, USA

150

$

3,125

USD

31-May-22

Retail kiosk

Chandler, AZ, USA

200

$

4,590

USD

30-Apr-22

Retail kiosk

Sacramento, CA, USA

80

$

8,350

USD

14-May-22

Retail kiosk

Los Angeles, CA, USA

150

$

8,333

USD

29-Nov-22

Retail kiosk

Scottsdale, AZ, USA

200

$

8,691

USD

30-Sep-24

Retail kiosk

Mesa, Arizona, USA

14,375

$

15,618

USD

30-Apr-22

Temporary Office

Mesa, Arizona, USA

235,000

$

Nil

USD

31-Aug-32

Assembly Facility

We believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our ongoing needs and that, if we require additional space, we will be able to obtain additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms.

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

General

As at January 1, 2021, our functional currency changed to the U.S. dollar (“USD”) from the Canadian dollar. The following management's discussion and analysis, prepared for the year ended December 31, 2021, is a review of our operations, current financial position and outlook and should be read in conjunction with our annual audited financial statements for the year ended December 31,

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2021 and the notes thereto. Amounts are reported in USD based upon financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB.

This Annual Report should be read in conjunction with the accompanying financial statements and related notes. The discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations are based upon the financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with IFRS, as adopted by the IASB.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with these accounting principles requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities at the financial statement date and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. On an on-going basis we review our estimates and assumptions. The estimates were based on historical experience and other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results are likely to differ from those estimates or other forward-looking statements under different assumptions or conditions, but we do not believe such differences will materially affect our financial position or results of operations. Our actual results may differ materially as a result of many factors, including those set forth under “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” herein.

Critical accounting policies, the policies we believe are most important to the presentation of our financial statements and require the most difficult, subjective and complex judgments, are outlined below under the heading “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates”, and have not changed significantly since our founding.

Overview

We were incorporated on February 16, 2015, under the laws of the Province of British Columbia, Canada, and our principal activity is the development and manufacturing of single occupancy electric vehicles. Our head office and principal address is located at 8057 North Fraser Way, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, V5J 5M8.

Additional information related to the Company is available on www.electrameccanica.com. Information on our website does not constitute part of this Annual Report.

Financing

Our ability to continue operations will depend on our continued ability to raise capital on acceptable terms. We incurred losses of $41,326,835 in 2021, $63,046,905 in 2020, $23,212,698 in 2019 and anticipate incurring losses in our 2022 fiscal year. We had negative operating cash flows of $60,418,163 for the year ended December 31, 2021 and anticipate negative operating cash flows during 2022. Although we had working capital surplus of $232,454,617, including cash and cash equivalents of $221,928,008, at December 31, 2021, and anticipate deriving revenue in 2022 from the sale of EVs and high-end custom cars, and while our cash on hand and cash inflow from sales in 2022 will finance our operations over the 12 month period following issuance of the financial statemetns, we believe that we will need additional financing to continue and expand operations . If we are unable to continue to access private and public capital on terms that are acceptable to us, we may be forced to curtail or cease operations.

Market conditions, trends or events

Our ability to continue operations also depends on market conditions outside of our control. Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects. Failure to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology would result in a decline in the Company’s competitive position which may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

A. Operating Results

Results of Operations for the Year ended December 31, 2021 as Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2020

Revenues

Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $2,100,770 (2020: $568,521). The cost of revenue was $4,334,681 (2020: $699,455) providing a gross loss of $2,233,911 (2020: $130,934) or -106.3% (2020: -23.0%). The revenue of the Company derives from sales of

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our flagship vehicle, the SOLO, and our high-end custom build cars. The first commercially-produced SOLOs were delivered to certain of our initial customers on October 4, 2021. 61 SOLOs and 12 high-end custom build cars were delivered in 2021.

The Company operates in two reportable business segments in Canada.

The two reportable business segments offer different products, require different production processes and are based on how the financial information is produced internally for the purposes of making operating decisions. The following summary describes the operations of each of the Company’s reportable business segments:

Electric Vehicles – development and manufacture of electric vehicles for mass markets, and
Custom build vehicles – development and manufacture of high-end custom built vehicles.

Sales between segments are accounted for at prices that approximate fair value. No business segments have been aggregated to form the above reportable business segments. (Financial statement note 19 for the year ended December 31, 2021).

Revenue for Solo and custom build vehicles is recognized when the Company has transferred control to the customer which generally occurs upon shipment. The following table indicates the number of vehicles produced for either delivery to customers, testing or marketing purposes.

 

Production

 

Customer Deliveries

    

Twelve Months Ended

    

Twelve Months Ended

Vehicle Type

 

Dec. 31, 2021

 

Dec. 31, 2020

 

Dec. 31, 2021

 

Dec. 31, 2020

Custom build vehicles – Roadster/Speedster

 

11

 

7

 

12

 

7

Electric vehicles – Prototype made in-house

 

 

6

 

 

1

Electric vehicles – Pre-production, made by Zongshen

 

 

4

 

 

Electric vehicles – Production, made by Zongshen

 

261

 

30

 

61

 

Operating Expenses

During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company incurred a net loss of $41,326,835, compared to a net loss of $63,046,905 for the corresponding period in 2020. The decrease in net loss between the two years resulted from an increase in an operating loss to $60,795,574 for the year ended December 31, 2021, from $27,210,487 for the prior year, and an increase in the income from other items; principally gain from change in the fair value of warrant derivative of $19,033,560 for the year ended December 31, 2021 from loss of $31,923,727 for the prior year. The largest expense items in net comprehensive loss are described below.

General and administrative expenses. For the year ended December 31, 2021, general and administrative expenses were $31,057,633, compared to $15,778,172 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The following items are included in such expenses:

Rent increased to $1,437,259 for the year ended December 31, 2021, from $616,968 for the year ended December 31, 2020.  The increase was caused by the opening of retail kiosks in the U.S.;
Office expenses increased to $2,522,810 for the year ended December 31, 2021, from $758,424 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was caused by increases in software subscriptions, travel, office supplies, cable and internet, bank charge and payroll service fee, and postage and courier;
Professional fees were $5,634,016 for the year ended December 31, 2021, from $2,073,022 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in legal and professional expenses was caused by the professional services received for our SAP system implementation and the increase in recruitment service expenses, offset by a decrease in legal expenses;
Consulting expenses were $2,803,967 for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $648,524 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in fees is related to the services in relation to the U.S.-based assembly facility assembly facility located in Mesa, Arizona;
Amortization expenses were $4,251,274 for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $1,603,654 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was due to the addition in property, plant and equipment of $5,937,305;

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Insurance expenses were $2,348,030 for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $572,932 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is related to insurance coverage increase and the overall rate increase; and
Salaries increased to $7,575,030 for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $3,488,459 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is related to the addition of new employees as we expand our business into comercial operations.

Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses increased to $17,090,282 for the year ended December 31, 2021, from $8,666,247 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. Research and development costs relate to the electric vehicle segment as the Company continues product development of the SOLO, Tofino, and e-Roadster. All costs related to development of vehicles are being expensed to research and development and SR&ED funds are being booked to reduce the research and development expenses.

Sales and marketing expenses. Sales and marketing expenses increased to $10,413,748 for the year ended December 31, 2021, from $2,635,134 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The Company has begun the commercial production of our flagship vehicle, the SOLO, and the Company increased its sales and marketing efforts by developing brand assets, increasing presence in social media, opening retail kiosks and rapidly growing its sales team.

Stock-based compensation expense. Stock-based compensation expense, included in general and administrative expenses, research and development expenses and sales and marketing expenses, totaled $3,807,773 for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $5,349,201 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2020. The Company issued 3,217,378 stock options with exercise prices between U.S.$3.01 and U.S.$7.23 per share during the year ended December 31, 2021. The Company also issued 450,442 RSU and 51,468 “DSU”s to Company executives and directors, respectively, during the same period. The Company uses the Black-Scholes method of calculating the stock-based compensation expense under the graded method. The decrease was caused by the decrease of the fair value of the awards vested.

Other Items

Changes in fair values of warrant derivative. The Company incurred a gain relating to changes in the fair value of warrant derivatives of $19,033,560 (2020: loss of $31,923,727) mainly caused by the decrease of our share price from $6.19 at December 31, 2020 to $2.28 at December 31, 2021, as well as the exercising of 3,460,212 warrants when our share prices were between $2.63 and $10.81. Warrants priced in Canadian dollars are classified as derivative liabilities because the Company’s functional currency is in U.S. dollars. As a result of this difference in currencies, the proceeds that are received by the Company are not fixed and will vary based on foreign exchange rates; hence the warrants are a derivative under IFRS and are required to be recognized and measured at fair value at each reporting period. Any changes in fair value from period to period are recorded as a non-cash gain or loss in our consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss.

Foreign exchange loss. The Company incurred a foreign exchange loss of $9,758 on net working capital in the year ended December 31, 2021 (2020: $4,447,387) due to less fluctuations between the U.S. and Canadian dollar.

Net Loss

As a result of the above factors, we reported a net loss for the year ended December 31, 2021 of $41,326,835, compared to a net loss of $63,046,905 for the corresponding period in 2020.

Results of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 as Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2019

Revenues

Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $568,521 (2019: $585,584). The cost of revenue was $699,455 (2019: $487,543) providing a gross loss of $130,934 (2019: gross profit $98,041) or -23.0% (2019: 16.7%).

The Company operates in two reportable business segments in Canada.

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The two reportable business segments offer different products, require different production processes and are based on how the financial information is produced internally for the purposes of making operating decisions. The following summary describes the operations of each of the Company’s reportable business segments:

Electric Vehicles – development and manufacture of electric vehicles for mass markets, and
Custom build vehicles – development and manufacture of high-end custom built vehicles.

Sales between segments are accounted for at prices that approximate fair value. No business segments have been aggregated to form the above reportable business segments.

Revenue recognition for custom build vehicles is based on the percentage completion method.No revenue from sales of electric vehicles is recognized because the vehicle has not been commercialized. Proceeds from these sales are incidental revenue and are not being made with expectation of profit. The following table indicates the number of vehicles produced for either delivery to customers, testing or marketing purposes.

Production 

Customer Deliveries

 Twelve Months Ended

 Twelve Months Ended

Vehicle Type

    

Dec. 31, 2020

Dec. 31, 2019

    

Dec. 31, 2020

Dec. 31, 2019

Custom build vehicles – Roadster/Speedster

 

7

 

8

 

7

 

7

Electric vehicles – Prototype made in-house

 

6

 

22

 

1

 

21

Electric vehicles – Pre-production, made by Zongshen

 

4

 

50

 

 

Electric vehicles – Production, made by Zongshen

 

30

 

 

 

Operating Expenses

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company incurred a net loss of $63,046,905 compared to a net loss of $23,212,698 for the corresponding period in 2019. The increase in net loss between the two years resulted from an increase in an operating loss to $27,210,487 for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $20,609,266 for the prior year, and an increase in the loss from other items; principally changes in the fair value of warrant derivative of $31,923,727 for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $2,228,256 for the prior year. The largest expense items in net comprehensive loss are described below.

General and administrative expenses. For the year ended December 31, 2020, general and administrative expenses were $15,778,172 compared to $11,620,875 for the year ended December 31, 2019. The following items are included in such expenses:

Rent increased to $616,968 for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $320,927 for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was caused by the opening of retail kiosks in the U.S.;
Professional expenses were $2,073,022 for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $1,393,004 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in legal and professional expenses was caused by the increases in legal fees related to various capital raising, governance, employment and corporate matters, as well as increase in accounting fees and recruiting fees;
Amortization expenses were $1,603,654 for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $804,206 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was due to the additions in property, plant and equipment;
Investor relations expenses, not including the consulting fees above, decreased to $666,988 for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $772,259 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2019. The increase is related to fewer consultants for investor relations; and
Salaries increased to $3,488,459 for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $1,738,829 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2019. The increase is related to the addition of new employees, performance increases to certain salaried employees and certain bonus costs.

Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses increased to $8,666,247 for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $7,434,084 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2019. Research and development costs relate to the electric

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vehicle segment as the Company continues to develop its first electric vehicle, the SOLO. All costs related to pre-production vehicles are being expensed to research and development and SR&ED funds are being booked to reduce the research and development expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company received $187,421 (2019: $797,002) in SR&ED funds under the program administered by the Canada Revenue Agency. In addition, the Company received $176,088 (2019: $Nil) in government grants from the Innovation Assistance Program administered by the National Research Council.

Sales and marketing expenses. Sales and marketing expenses increased to $2,635,134 for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $1,652,348 for the corresponding year ended December 31, 2019. The Company increased its sales and marketing efforts by developing brand assets, increasing presence in social media, opening retail kiosks and rapidly growing its sales team.

Stock-based compensation expense. For the year ended December 31, 2020, stock-based compensation expense included in general and administrative expenses, research and development expenses and sales and marketing expenses totaled $6,260,985 (2019: $5,147,573). The Company issued 1,790,000 stock options with exercise prices between U.S.$3.41 and U.S.$3.77 per share during the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company also issued 507,849 RSUs and 44,623 DSUs to Company executives and directors, respectively, during the same period. In addition, the stock-based compensation charges relate to stock options issued during previous years wherein charges are recognized over the stock option vesting period. The Company uses the Black-Scholes method of calculating the stock-based compensation expense under the graded method.

Share-based payment expense. For the year ended December 31, 2020, share-based payment expense was $Nil (2019: $159,833). These charges relate to shares issued to consultants as compensation for services performed and are valued at the market price of the Company’s share price at the time of issuance.

Other Items

Changes in fair values of warrant derivative. The Company incurred a loss relating to changes in the fair value of warrant derivatives of $31,923,727 (2019: $2,228,256) mainly caused the increase of our share price from $2.15 at December 31, 2019 to $6.19 at December 31, 2020, as well as the exercising of 3,460,212 warrants when our share prices were between $2.63 and $10.81. Warrants priced in U.S. dollars are classified as derivative liabilities because the Company’s functional currency is in Canadian dollars. As a result of this difference in currencies, the proceeds that are received by the Company are not fixed and will vary based on foreign exchange rates; hence the warrants are a derivative under IFRS and are required to be recognized and measured at fair value at each reporting period. Any changes in fair value from period to period are recorded as a non-cash gain or loss in our consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss.

Foreign exchange loss. The Company incurred a foreign exchange loss of $4,447,387 on net working capital in the year ended December 31, 2020 (2019: $597,464) as caused by fluctuations between the U.S. and Canadian dollar.

Net Loss

As a result of the above factors, we reported a net loss for the year ended December 31, 2020 of $63,046,905, compared to a net loss of $23,212,698 for the corresponding period in 2019.

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

Liquidity

The Company’s operations consist of the designing, developing and manufacturing of electric vehicles. The Company’s financial success depends upon its ability to market and sell its electric vehicles and to raise sufficient working capital to enable the Company to execute its business plan. The Company’s historical capital needs have been met by the sale of the Company’s stock. Equity funding might not be possible at the times required by the Company. If no funds can be raised and sales of its electric vehicles do not produce sufficient net cash flow, then the Company may require a significant curtailing of operations to ensure its survival or may be required to cease operations. As at December 31, 2021, the Company has $221,928,008 of cash and cash equivalents on hand and, with inflow from sales in 2022, the Companybelieves that it has sufficient cash to carry on operationfor the next 12 month period following issuance of this Annual Report.

These financial statements have been prepared on a basis which assumes that the Company will be able to realize its assets and discharge its liabilities in the normal course of business for the foreseeable future. The Company incurred a net loss of $41,326,835 during the

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year ended December 31, 2021, and had a cash and cash equivalents balance and a working capital surplus of $221,928,008 and $232,454,617, respectively, as at December 31, 2021. The Company’s ability to meet its obligations as they fall due and to continue to operate depends on the continued financial support of its creditors and its shareholders. In the past the Company has relied on sales of its equity securities to meet its cash requirements. Funding from this or other sources might not be sufficient in the future to continue its operations. Even if the Company is able to obtain new financing, it may not be on commercially reasonable terms or terms that are acceptable to it. Failure to obtain such financing on a timely basis could cause the Company to reduce or terminate its operations.

As of December 31, 2021, the Company had 117,338,964 issued and outstanding shares and 137,458,714 shares on a fully-diluted basis. The Company began trading on Nasdaq on August 9, 2018.

The Company had $232,454,617 of working capital surplus as at December 31, 2021, compared to $130,755,823 of working capital surplus as at December 31, 2020. The increase in working capital resulted from cash generated from financing activities of $157,681,605 (2020: $138,927,009) due to the to the issuance of 28,029,401 common shares for net cash proceeds of $157,984,675 (2020: $127,894,718), offset by cash used in operations of $60,418,163 (2020: $22,486,630) and cash used in investing activities of $4,786,697 (2020: $1,399,068) related to additions to property, plant and equipment.

Capital Resources

As at December 31, 2021, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $221,928,008 (2020: $129,450,676). The Company continues to pursue additional equity financing although there can be no guarantees that the Company will be successful in such endeavors.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires management to use estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as well as revenue and expenses. These are based on the best information available at the time utilizing generally accepted industry standards

Significant estimates and assumptions

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions concerning the future. The Company’s management reviews these estimates and underlying assumptions on an ongoing basis, based on experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Revisions to estimates are adjusted for prospectively in the period in which the estimates are revised.

Estimates and assumptions where there is significant risk of material adjustments to assets and liabilities in future accounting periods include the estimated recoverable amount of other long-lived assets, the useful lives of plant and equipment, fair value measurements for financial instruments and share-based payments and the recoverability and measurement of deferred tax assets.

The COVID-19 outbreak brings significant uncertainty as to the potential impact on our operations, supply chains for parts and sales channels for our products, and on the global economy as a whole. It is currently not possible to predict how long the pandemic will last or the time that it will take for economic activity to return to prior levels. Therefore, the Company has not changed any estimates and assumptions in the preparation of the financial statements.

Significant judgements

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires the Company to make judgements, apart from those involving estimates, in applying accounting policies. The most significant judgements in applying the Company’s financial statements include:

the assessment of the Company’s ability to continue operations and whether there are events or conditions that may give rise to significant uncertainty;
the assessment of the Company’s functional currency;
the classification of financial instruments; and
the vesting probability of stock options with market conditions.

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Financial Instruments

The Company classifies its financial instruments in the following categories: at fair value through profit or loss (“FVTPL”); or at amortized cost. The Company determines the classification of financial assets at initial recognition. The classification of financial assets is driven by the Company’s business model for managing the financial assets and their contractual cash flow characteristics. Equity instruments that are held for trading are classified as FVTPL. For other equity instruments, on the day of acquisition the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) to designate them as at fair value through other comprehensive income (loss) (“FVTOCI”). Financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost, unless they are required to be measured at FVTPL (such as instruments held for trading or derivatives) or if the Company has opted to measure them at FVTPL.

The following table shows the classification of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities

Financial assets/liabilities

    

    

Cash and cash equivalents

Amortized cost

Restricted cash

Amortized cost

Receivables

Amortized cost

Trade payables and accrued liabilities

Amortized cost

Derivative liabilities

FVTPL

Lease liabilities

Amortized cost

Financial assets and liabilities at amortized cost are initially recognized at fair value plus or minus transaction costs, respectively, and subsequently carried at amortized cost less any impairment.

Financial assets and liabilities carried at FVTPL are initially recorded at fair value and transaction costs are expensed in the consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss. Realized and unrealized gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of the financial assets and liabilities held at FVTPL are included in the consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss in the period in which they arise.

Revenue from contracts with customers

Sales of electric vehicles

Revenues from selling SOLO EV is recognized when the Company has transferred control to the customer which generally occurs upon delivery and transfer of ownership. Revenue is measured based on consideration specified in a contract with a customer and excludes amounts collected on behalf of third parties. The total consideration in the contract is allocated to all products and services based on their stand-alone selling prices. The stand-alone selling prices are determined with reference to the selling prices of similar products or services and other reasonably available information.

Customers usually pay consideration prior to the transfer of control over the products to customers.

In addition, product sales contracts with customers include warranty clauses to guarantee that the products comply with agreed-upon specifications. The Company recognizes general estimated warranties costs on its EVs at the time products are sold to customers. These provisions are estimated based on historical warranty claim experience with consideration given to the expected level of future warranty costs as well as current information on repair costs. Provision for product warranties are utilized for expenditures based on the demand from customers. As of December 31, 2021, $nil warranty provision is recognized based on management’s estimate of the same.

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Share-based payments

Share-based compensation expenses are measured at the fair value of the instruments issued and amortized over the vesting periods.  Share-based payment expenses to non-employees are measured at the fair value of goods or services received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, if it is determined the fair value of the goods or services cannot be reliably measured, and are recorded at the date the goods or services are received. The corresponding amounts are recorded to the share-based payment reserve. For awards with no market-based performance measurement, the fair value of awards is determined using a Black–Scholes pricing model. For awards subject to the performance against a market-based performance measure, management has used the Monte Carlo simulation model to calculate the grant date fair value. The number of awards expected to vest is reviewed and adjusted at the end of each reporting period such that the amount recognized for services received as consideration for the equity instruments granted shall be based on the number of equity instruments that eventually vest. The share-based payment reserve records items that are recognized as stock-based compensation expense and other share-based payments until such time that the underlying securities are exercised, at which time the corresponding amount will be transferred to share capital. If the securities expire unexercised, the amount remains in the share-based payment reserve account.

Research and development expenses

Research costs are expensed when incurred and are stated net of government grants. Development costs including direct material, direct labour and contract service costs are capitalized as intangible assets when: the Company can demonstrate that the technical feasibility of the project has been established; the Company intends to complete the asset for use or sale and has the ability to do so; the asset can generate probable future economic benefits; the technical and financial resources are available to complete the development; and the Company can reliably measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development. After initial recognition, internally generated intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. These capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life. To date, the Company did not have any development costs that met the capitalization criteria.

Derivative Liability - Warrants

The Company accounts for its warrants as either equity or liabilities based upon the characteristics and provisions of each instrument. Warrants classified as equity are recorded at fair value as of the date of issuance on the Company’s consolidated statements of financial position and no further adjustments to their valuation are made. Warrants classified as derivative liabilities that require separate accounting as liabilities are recorded on the Company’s consolidated statements of financial position at their fair value on the date of issuance and will be revalued on each subsequent statement of financial position date until such instruments are exercised or expire, with any changes in the fair value between reporting periods recorded as other income or expense. Management estimates the fair value of these liabilities using option pricing models and assumptions that are based on the individual characteristics of the warrants or instruments on the valuation date, as well as assumptions for future financings, expected volatility, expected life, yield and risk-free interest rate. On January 1, 2021, the Company change its functional currency from CAD to USD. As a result, warrants denominated in CAD were recognized as derivative liabilities and warrants denominated in USD were recognized as equity.

Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of the Company’s long-lived assets with finite useful lives (which include plant and equipment and intangible assets) is reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit (“CGU”) assets exceeds its recoverable amount. The Company has identified two CGUs, including electric vehicles, which develop and manufacture electric vehicles for mass markets, and custom-built vehicles which develop and manufacture high-end custom-built vehicles. Impairment losses are recognized in the consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss.

The recoverable amount of assets is the greater of an asset’s fair value less cost to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. For an asset that does not generate cash inflows largely independent of those from other assets, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

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An impairment loss is only reversed if there is an indication that the impairment loss may no longer exist and there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. Any reversal of impairment cannot increase the carrying value of the asset to an amount higher than the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized in previous years.

Income taxes

Current income tax

Current income tax assets and liabilities for the current period are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date, in the countries where the Company operates and generates taxable income. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in other comprehensive income or equity is recognized in other comprehensive income or equity and not in profit or loss. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Deferred income tax

Deferred income tax is recognized, using the liability method, on temporary differences at the reporting date arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes. The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and recognized only to the extent that it is probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilized. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. Deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities are offset if a deferred income taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.

The following table specifies the amounts spent on research and development for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019:

    

Year Ended

    

Year Ended

    

Year Ended

December 31,

December 31,

December 31,

2021

2020

2019

Labor

$

13,901,236

$

5,471,136

$

4,403,038

Materials

2,367,340

2,383,730

3,253,593

Government grants

(476,985)

Share-based compensation expense

821,706

811,381

254,438

Total

$

17,090,282

$

8,666,247

$

7,434,084

D. Trend Information

Due to our short operating history, except as noted below, we are not aware of any trends that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that is material to investors.

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Potential Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic

In December 2019, a strain of novel coronavirus (now commonly known as COVID-19) was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 has since spread rapidly throughout many countries and, on March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic. In an effort to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19, many countries, including the United States, Canada and China, have imposed unprecedented restrictions on travel, and there have been business closures and a substantial reduction in economic activity in countries that have had significant outbreaks of COVID-19. Our manufacturing partner, Zongshen, reports that its operations have not been materially affected at this point, and we anticipate that Zongshen remained on track and began production of the SOLOs on August 26, 2020 and deliveries began October 4,2021. However, significant uncertainty remains as to the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our and Zongshen’s operations, and on the global economy as a whole. It is currently not possible to predict how long the pandemic will last or the time that it will take for economic activity to return to prior levels. We do not yet know the full extent of any impact on our business or our operations, however, we will continue to monitor the COVID-19 situation closely, and intend to follow health and safety guidelines as they evolve.

E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

As of December 31, 2021, we did not have any off-balance sheet debt nor did we have any transactions, arrangements, obligations (including contingent obligations) or other relationships with any unconsolidated entities or other persons that may have material current or future effect on financial conditions, changes in the financial conditions, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures, capital resources or significant components of revenue or expenses.

F. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

The Company adopted IFRS 16 on January 1, 2019, resulting in an increase of $1.60 million in total assets and total liabilities each for recognition of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, respectively. The following table provides the contractual obligations:

    

Within one

    

Between one

    

More than five

    

year

 and five years

 years

Total

At December 31, 2021

 

5,432,054

 

9,584,033

 

22,456,524

 

37,472,611

At December 31, 2020

 

576,232

 

373,889

 

125,652

 

1,075,773

G. Safe Harbor

Not applicable.

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

A. Directors and Senior Management

Name, Province/State and Country of Residence

    

Age

    

Position

    

Director/Officer Since

Kevin Pavlov(1), Michigan, U.S.

57

Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer and a director

May 1, 2021

Henry Reisner(2), British Columbia, Canada

 

58

 

President, Chief Operating Officer and a director

February 16, 2015

Bal Bhullar(3), British Columbia, Canada

 

52

 

Chief Financial Officer, Secretary and a director

November 19, 2018

Kim Brink, Michigan, U.S.

 

55

 

Chief Revenue Officer

January 24, 2022

Steven Sanders(4)(6), New York, U.S.

 

76

 

Chairman and a director

March 16, 2018

Jerry Kroll(5), British Columbia, Canada

 

61

 

Director

February 16, 2015

Luisa Ingargiola(6), Florida, U.S.

 

54

 

Director

March 16, 2018

Joanne Yan(6), British Columbia, Canada

 

64

 

Director

March 6, 2019

David Shemmans(6), West Sussex, United Kingdom

 

55

 

Director

August 23, 2021

Michael Richardson, Michigan, U.S.

65

Director

November 22, 2021

Isaac Moss, British Columbia, Canada

69

Chief Administrative Officer and Corporate Secretary

May 15, 2018

Notes:

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(1)Mr. Pavlov was appointed as Chief Operating Officer of our Company on May 1, 2021 and then appointed the Chief Executive Officer and director of our Company on September 21, 2021. He was appointed President of our Company on January 27, 2022
(2)Mr. Reisner was appointed as President and Chief Operating Officer of our Company on May 15, 2018 and then, effective May 1, 2021, Mr. Reisner’s position was changed to Executive Vice-President. Effective January 27, 2022, Mr. Reisner retired from the Company.
(3)Ms. Bhullar was appointed as Chief Financial Officer of our Company on November 19, 2018, and as a director of our Company on December 6, 2019.
(4)Mr.Sanders was appointed Chairman of our Company on October 20, 2018.
(5)Mr. Kroll was appointed President, Chief Executive Officer and a director of our Company effective February 16, 2015. Mr. Kroll resigned from his position as President on May 15, 2018 and as Chairman on October 20, 2018. Mr. Kroll resigned as Chief Executive Officer on August 12, 2019.
(6)Members of the Company’s Audit Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, Corporate Disclosure and/or Compensation Committee.

Business Experience

The following summarizes the occupation and business experience during the past five years or more for our directors and executive officers as of the date of this Annual Report:

Kevin Pavlov, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer and a director

Kevin Pavlov brings over two decades of automotive experience across large global corporations, government entities and start-ups and has extensive experience within electric vehicle development, production and delivery.

Prior to ElectraMeccanica, Mr. Pavlov served as the COO of Karma Automotive, the Southern California-based high-tech mobility incubator and creator of luxury electric vehicles, where he was responsible for operations in the U.S., Europe and Asia resulting in significant manufacturing process and finance operations improvements.

Previous to that, Mr. Pavlov was a mergers & acquisitions consultant at Ricardo US and also served as Chief Executive Officer of Eco-Fueling Inc., a manufacturer in ethanol and diesel fuel technology.

Mr. Pavlov held several senior leadership positions during his seven year tenure at Magna International, including Executive Vice President of Magna Services Ventures and Innovation group, COO of the company’s E-Car Joint Venture, where he spearheaded its three divisions: Energy Components, Energy Storage and Lithium Ion Battery manufacturing, and was Global President and General Manager of Magna Electronics.

Before his tenure at Magna, Mr. Pavlov was the President and CEO of BluWāv Systems, which was acquired by Magna in 2008,where he was in charge of corporate development and commercialization of all transportation applications.

Mr. Pavlov holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical/electronic engineering from the University of Detroit, a master’s in electronics and computer control systems from Wayne State University and an Executive MBA from the Advanced Management Program at Michigan State University. He is currently completing an MBA in business turnaround management from the University of Detroit.

Henry Reisner,former Executive Vice- President and director

Until his retirement, Henry Reisner was the President of InterMeccanica, a subsidiary of our Company, which is an automobile manufacturer, and has held this position since 2001. He is experienced in the automotive industry and has a background in manufacturing.

Mr. Reisner holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from the University of British Columbia from 1989.

Mr. Reisner retired from the Company on January 27, 2022.

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Bal Bhullar, Chief Financial Officer and a director

Bal Bhullar brings over 25 years of diversified business, financial and risk management experience as an executive and/or as a board member in both public and private companies, which includes such industries as technology, manufacturing, automotive, e-commerce, block chain, resource, marine, energy, transport and health/wellness.

Among some of the her areas of experience, Ms. Bhullar brings to our Company strong banking relationships, increasing market capitalization, raising capital, corporate governance, ESG, diversity as well as financial and strategic planning, initial public offerings, reverse take overs, operational and risk management, regulatory compliance reporting, investor relations, marketing, business expansion, start-up operations, financial modeling, program development, product development, corporate financing, internal controls, SOX compliance and ERP.

Previously, Ms. Bhullar has held various positions including President of BC Risk Management Association, and has held positions as a board member and Chief Financial Officer of several private and public companies. Ms. Bhullar currently holds the following positions: Chief Financial Officer/board director of ElectraMeccanica; Chief Executive Officer/Founder/board member of KISMET Nutrients/American e-Commerce Solutions LLC; Chief Executive Officer/Founder/board member of BKB Management Ltd.; and former Chief Financial Officer/board member and now an Advisory Board member of Enertopia Corp. OTCQB:ENRT.

Ms. Bhullar is a Chartered Professional Accountant, Certified General Accountant and a CRM designation from Simon Fraser University and has a diploma in Financial Management from the British Columbia Institute of Technology.

Kim Brink, Chief Revenue Officer

Kim Brink is a seasoned go-to-market strategist and marketing expert with over 25 years’ experience spanning global automotive OEMs,  privately held firms and startups. As a global agency and client-side C-suite executive, Ms. Brink has proven expertise at building brands through her keen understanding and curiosity of consumer behavior and trends, an innate ability to identify and untapp the power of a brand for growth and extensive knowledge of data-driven, digitally enabled marketing and CX solutions.

Ms. Brink is experienced at leading large, complex global organizations having held the role of Global Chief Operating Officer of GTB, the advertising agency dedicated to WPP’s largest client, Ford Motor Company, and its retail dealers. In this position, she led a highly collaborative team of 3,000 employees in 84 markets and stewarded the industry’s most integrated agency model with oversight of all agency capabilities and performance including strategy, analytics, media, creative, digital platforms, business operations, finance, talent and the U.S. Dealer Retail business. Ms. Brink was a trusted strategic advisor to Ford and, as Chair of the agency’s Executive Committee, delivered YOY double-digit revenue growth.

Prior to joining GTB, Ms. Brink served as the Senior Vice President of Marketing at NASCAR, in Charlotte, N.C., and held several senior leadership positions at General Motors, including the lead marketing executive role for both Chevrolet and Cadillac during critical moments in their history. At Chevrolet, she was responsible for the launches of over 20 vehicles which helped return the division to sales leadership, and, during her tenure at Cadillac, spearheaded a brand renaissance that changed the trajectory of this legendary luxury make. She also oversaw the creation of the first-ever Cadillac Escalade brand, one of GM’s most profitable franchises to date.

As a native of Detroit, Ms. Brink earned her MBA and BS from Wayne State University and is a graduate of the Kellogg Executive Development Program at Northwestern University. As a member of the women’s executive leadership organizations, C200 and WBC, she is an advocate for advancing the next generation of female leaders in business.

Steven Sanders, Chairman and a director

Since January 2017, Steven Sanders has been Of Counsel to the law firm of Ortoli Rosenstadt LLP. From July 2007 until January 2017, Mr. Sanders was a Senior Partner of Ortoli Rosenstadt LLP. From January 1, 2004 until June 30, 2007, he was Of Counsel to the law firm of Rubin, Bailin, Ortoli, LLP. From January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003, Mr. Sanders was counsel to the law firm of Spitzer & Feldman PC. Mr. Sanders also serves as a director of Helijet International, Inc.and Avalon GloboCare (NASDAQ:AVCO). Additionally, Mr. Sanders has been a director at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts since October 2013 and has been a director of the Bay Street Theater since February 2015. Mr. Sanders received his JD from Cornell University and his BBA from The City College of New York.

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Jerry Kroll, a director

Jerry Kroll has an extensive background working in small businesses and start-ups. Mr. Kroll’s career began when he managed the production, strategic planning and sales operations of Kroll Greenhouses, his family’s business. From there, Mr. Kroll served in other management roles in the floral and food services industries, overseeing the import/export of floral products, managing employees, managing food franchises and establishing supplier/distributor relationships.

In 1996 Mr. Kroll became involved in air racing as the owner of Vancouver International Air Races and Airshow, which featured large scale events attracting over 15,000 spectators and 31 corporate sponsors. From then on Mr. Kroll became increasingly involved in air racing and motor races.

In 2007 Mr. Kroll founded KleenSpeed Technologies, a firm focused on stationary energy storage products. Mr. Kroll began researching and developing an EV for the everyday commuter. As an entrepreneur, Mr. Kroll also founded Ascend Sportmanagement Inc., a sports property and technology management firm.

Mr. Kroll’s experience and skillset in innovative technology and start-ups, coupled with his passion for clean technology developments, allows Mr. Kroll to coordinate, manage and execute strategies for our Company.

Mr. Kroll is also actively involved in the Vancouver venture capital community and has been a member of the Vancouver Angel Technology Network, an investing and mentoring network for new technology start-ups, since 2003. From February 2013 to February 2015, Mr. Kroll was the President and CEO of Ascend Sportsmanagement Inc.

Luisa Ingargiola, a director

Luisa Ingargiola is a director and the Chair of our Audit Committee. Ms. Ingargiola has significant experience previously serving as Chief Financial Officer or Audit Chair for public companies. She currently serves as a director and Audit Chair for several public companies, including AgEagle (NYSE:UAVS), Progress Acquisition Corporation (NASDAQ:PGRWU), Vision Marine Technologies, Inc. (NASDAQ:VMAR ) and BioCorRX (OTC: BICX). In addition, from 2017 to the present, she has served as Chief Financial Officer for Avalon GloboCare (NASDAQ:AVCO). From 2007 through 2016, Ms. Ingargiola served as the Chief Financial Officer and then director at MagneGas Corporation (NASDAQ:MNGA). Prior to 2007, Ms. Ingargiola held various roles as Budget Director and Investment Analyst in several private companies.

Ms. Ingargiola graduated in 1989 from Boston University with a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration and a concentration in Finance. In 1996, she received her MBA in Health Administration from the University of South Florida.

Ms. Ingargiola is qualified to serve as the Chair of our Audit Committee because of her extensive knowledge in corporate governance, regulatory oversight, executive leadership and knowledge of, and experience in, financing and M&A transactions.

Joanne Yan, a director

Joanne Yan has 25 years of experience in advising and managing both publicly traded and private companies and has been active in the cross-border investment and mergers and acquisition space. Ms. Yan serves as the President of Joyco Consulting Services, which she founded in 1994 to provide consulting services in the areas of corporate structuring, business development and strategic planning initiatives.

Ms. Yan was a senior corporate executive and consultant to a number of public companies between 1997 and 2016. Ms. Yan has also been a director and chair of board committees with several publicly traded companies and private companies in Canada, including: (i) the Zongshen Group, our strategic manufacturing partner, and three of its subsidiaries; (ii) the Toronto Stock Exchange-listed Hanwei Energy Services Corp.; (ii) OOOOO Entertainment Commerce Ltd.; and (iii) AADirection Capital Corp., which is a capital pool company and in the process of completing its qualifying transactions.

Dave Shemmans, a director

Dave Shemmans has significant experience with UK market listed, start-up and public regulated companies. Mr. Shemmans has recently (September 2021) stepped down after 16 years as CEO of Ricardo Plc (LSE:RCDO), a global engineering company and is currently

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also an active non-executive director (including Chairman of the remuneration committee) of Sutton & East Surrey Water, a regulated UK water company.

Ricardo is a world leading automotive engineering business with engineering expertise including electric vehicle development for global clients. Prior to his 22 years at Ricardo, Mr. Shemmans led a startup Wavedriver Limited , an electric vehicle powertrain business in the UK which designed, manufactured and applied advanced power electronic based drive systems for passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Prior to Wavedriver, Mr. Shemmans designed power electronic systems and solutions for various sectors, including automotive, consumer and industrial, for the engineering consulting firm, The Technology Partnership (TTP). His first career role following graduation from the University of Manchester Institute for Science and Technology (UMIST) in Electrical & Electronic Engineering in 1987 was as a design engineer for Marconi Instruments. Additional qualifications include being a graduate from the Harvard Business School in 1999 on the Exec Ed PMD73 programme.

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson brings four decades of global automotive experience, working with original equipment manufacturers and Tier 1 system suppliers. Prior to joining ElectraMeccanica, Mr. Richardson served as CTO & CSO of Nexteer Automotive. He worked regionally in Europe & Asia for eight years, overseeing a comprehensive restructuring of both product portfolio and manufacturing footprint. He retired from Nexteer Automotive as President and as a Board member in 2019. Mr. Richardson continues to serve on the boards of Dura Automotive and Shape Corporation.

Mr. Richardson holds a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from Kettering University and a master’s degree in business administration from Central Michigan University. He also holds a Master Level Professional Board Director Certification from the American College of Corporate Directors. He has been recognized as a Professional Engineer, Certified Quality Engineer and unlimited-rating Stationary Power Engineer. Mr. Richardson has authored numerous intellectual properties impacting both product and process. He is a Boss Kettering Innovation Award recipient, GM Presidents Award winner and Delphi Inventors Hall of Fame inductee.

Isaac Moss, Chief Administrative Officer and Corporate Secretary

Isaac Moss has 27 years of international multi-jurisdictional business, investment banking and corporate finance experience ranging across diverse industry sectors from media, forests products, hospitality, telecommunications, bio technology and green energy. Mr. Moss is experienced in scaling and managing businesses from startup through operations phase. He has held senior executive positions, including President of a European specialty chemical company, Chief Financial Officer of a green energy company, Chief Operating Officer of a software company and Senior Vice-President of a mining company. He is a graduate of the University of Cape Town with a Bachelor of Social Science and Masters Degree in Public Administration. Mr. Moss also studied music, is an accomplished pianist and serves as an ambassador for the University of British Columbia’s School of Music.

Family Relationships

There are no family relationships among any of our directors and executive officers.

Term of Office

Each director of our Company is to serve for a term of one year ending on the date of the subsequent annual meeting of stockholders following the annual meeting at which such director was elected. Notwithstanding the foregoing, each director is to serve until his successor is elected and qualified or until his death, resignation or removal. Our Board of Directors appoints our officers and each officer is to serve until his successor is appointed and qualified or until his or her death, resignation or removal.

Involvement in Certain Legal Proceedings

During the past ten years, none of our directors or executive officers have been the subject of the following events:

1.a petition under the Federal bankruptcy laws or any state insolvency law was filed by or against, or a receiver, fiscal agent or similar officer was appointed by a court for the business or property of such person, or any partnership in which he was a general partner at or within two years before the time of such filing, or any corporation or business association of which he was an executive officer at or within two years before the time of such filing;

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2.convicted in a criminal proceeding or is a named subject of a pending criminal proceeding (excluding traffic violations and other minor offenses);
3.the subject of any order, judgment, or decree, not subsequently reversed, suspended or vacated, of any court of competent jurisdiction, permanently or temporarily enjoining him from, or otherwise limiting, the following activities:
(a)acting as a futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, floor broker, leverage transactio