Annual and transition report of foreign private issuers pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Financial instruments and financial risk management

v3.19.1
Financial instruments and financial risk management
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Financial Instruments and Financial Risk Management [Abstract]  
Financial instruments and financial risk management
19. Financial instruments and financial risk management

 

The Company is exposed in varying degrees to a variety of financial instrument related risks. The Board of Directors approves and monitors the risk management processes, inclusive of controlling and reporting structures. The type of risk exposure and the way in which such exposure is managed is provided as follows:

 

Credit risk

Credit risk is the risk that one party to a financial instrument will fail to discharge an obligation and cause the other party to incur a financial loss. The Company’s primary exposure to credit risk is on its cash and cash equivalents held in bank accounts. The majority of cash is deposited in bank accounts held with major financial institutions in Canada. As most of the Company’s cash is held by one financial institution there is a concentration of credit risk. This risk is managed by using major financial institutions that are high credit quality financial institutions as determined by rating agencies. The Company’s secondary exposure to risk is on its receivables. This risk is minimal as receivables consist primarily of government grant and refundable government goods and services taxes.

 

Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is the risk that the Company will not be able to meet its financial obligations as they fall due. The Company has a planning and budgeting process in place to help determine the funds required to support the Company’s normal operating requirements on an ongoing basis. The Company ensures that there are sufficient funds to meet its short-term business requirements, taking into account its anticipated cash flows from operations and its holdings of cash and cash equivalents.

 

Historically, the Company's source of funding has been shareholder loans and the issuance of equity securities for cash, primarily through private placements. The Company’s access to financing is always uncertain. There can be no assurance of continued access to significant equity funding.

 

The following is an analysis of the contractual maturities of the Company’s non-derivative financial liabilities as at December 31, 2018 and 2017:

 

At December 31, 2018   Within one year     Between one
and five years
    More than
five years
 
Trade payables   $ 718,953       -       -  
Accrued liabilities     543,908       -       -  
Customer deposits     303,076       -       -  
Shareholder loan     6,230       -       -  
    $ 1,572,157     $ -     $ -  

 

At December 31, 2017   Within one year     Between one
and five years
    More than
five years
 
Bank loan   $ 123,637     $ -     $ -  
Trade payables     474,334       -       -  
Accrued liabilities     649,456       -       -  
Customer deposits     362,829       -       -  
Shareholder loan     10,383       -       -  
Promissory note     1,500,000       -       -  
    $ 3,120,639     $ -     $ -  

 

Foreign exchange risk

Foreign currency risk is the risk that the fair values of future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because they are denominated in currencies that differ from the respective functional currency. The Company is exposed to currency risk as it incurs expenditures that are denominated in US dollars while its functional currency is the Canadian dollar. The Company does not hedge its exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.

 

The following is an analysis of Canadian dollar equivalent of financial assets and liabilities that are denominated in US dollars:

 

    December 31,
2018
    December 31,
2017
 
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 18,102,872     $ 5,596,635  
Trade receivables     51,164       -  
Trade payables     (382,087 )     (138,794 )
    $ 17,771,949     $ 5,457,841  

 

Based on the above net exposures, as at December 31, 2018, a 10% change in the US dollars to Canadian dollar exchange rate would impact the Company’s net loss by $1,777,195 (2017 - $545,784).

 

Interest rate risk

Interest rate risk is the risk that the fair value of future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates. The Company is exposed to interest rate risk on its cash equivalents as these instruments have original maturities of twelve months or less and are therefore exposed to interest rate fluctuations on renewal. A 1% change in market interest rates would have an impact on the Company’s net loss of $164,830 for the year ended December 31, 2018 (2017 - $18,950).

 

Classification of financial instruments

Financial assets included in the statement of financial position are as follows:

 

    December 31,
2018
    December 31,
2017
 
Loans and receivables:                
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 18,926,933     $ 8,610,996  
Receivables     1,190,689       243,639  
    $ 20,117,622     $ 8,854,635  

 

Financial liabilities included in the statement of financial position are as follows:

 

    December 31,
2018
    December 31,
2017
 
Non-derivative financial liabilities:                
Bank loan   $ -     $ 123,637  
Trade payable and accrued liabilities     1,262,861       1,123,790  
Customer deposits     303,076       362,829  
Shareholder loan     6,230       10,383  
Promissory note     -       1,500,000  
Derivative financial liabilities:                
Derivative liability     4,752,875       3,655,690  
    $ 6,325,042     $ 6,776,329  

 

Fair value

The fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities approximates the carrying amount.

Financial instruments measured at fair value are classified into one of three levels in the fair value hierarchy according to the relative reliability of the inputs used to estimate the fair values. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are:

· Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
· Level 2 – Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly; and
· Level 3 – Inputs that are not based on observable market data.

 

Financial liabilities measured at fair value at December 31, 2018 consisted of the derivative liability, which is measured using level 1 inputs.

  

The fair value of the derivative liability relating to the transferrable warrants was calculated using the quoted market price on the NASDAQ.

 

The fair value of the derivative liability relating to the non-transferrable warrants was calculated using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model using historical volatility as an estimate of future volatility. At December 31, 2018, if the volatility used was increased by 10% the impact would be an increase to the derivate liability of $575,723 with a corresponding increase in the comprehensive loss.